Antigua – Guatemala’s Magic Ruined City

Often described as the jewel of Guatemala – but how does Antigua feel in real life? Luckily we have the words, wisdom and photos of our traveller Dale of The Maritime Explorer to explain. 

Alison and I are continuing our journey through every country in Central America with guide Victor Romagnoli leading the way on behalf of Canadian tour company Adventures Abroad. We just spent two amazing days in the Lake Atitlan area which I describe in this post and now we are headed the short distance to the famed colonial city of Antigua Guatemala. On the way we dropped into the shrine of San Simon, which was an other worldly experience to say the least. We are now leaving the domain of the various Mayan peoples who dominate most of the Guatemalan Highlands and entering an area where there are more mestizos than purely Indigenous peoples. And although we got our first taste of a true tourist town in Panajachel on Lake Atitlan in quite some time, Victor tells us to expect Antigua to be much more crowded.

History of Antigua Guatemala

Agua Volcano, Antigua Guatemala
Vulcan de Agua

Anyone familiar with Spanish will know that Antigua means ‘old’ or probably more accurately ‘ancient’ which is kind of ironic because, unlike many Spanish colonial cities, Antigua Guatemala was not built on top of a much older Indigenous settlement. It’s chronology of continuous occupation is actually much shorter than many other Guatemalan cities, but by New World standards it’s still pretty old. It was founded in 1543 as Santiago de los Caballeros, the third attempt by the Spanish to build a city in the area under shadow of Vulcan de Agua. The first had to be abandoned due to attacks by Mayan warriors and the second got wiped out by a huge volcanic mudslide in 1541. Sounds familiar – we saw the same thing at Leon, in Nicaragua.

The third city was founded five miles further away from Vulcan de Agua in the apparent belief that this would be far enough to ensure the city didn’t get buried a second time. The Spanish picked a nice flat spot at the base of a wooded hill (now Cerro de la Cruz) and laid out the city in a perfect grid, making it just about the easiest both physically and spatially to navigate in the country. You’d have to really work at getting lost in Antigua.

Calle de Los Pasos Cobblestones
Flat Streets of Antigua

In 1549 Santiago de los Caballeros was named capital city of the huge province of Guatemala which included every present day country in Central America except Panama, as well as a good chunk of southern Mexico. That turned out to be a great magnet for religious groups who began pouring into the city, starting with the Franciscans and followed by just about every other major religious order of the day. Like the old adage, you can’t swing a cat in Antigua without hitting a church, monastery or convent. None of these groups seemed to bothered by the fact that almost like clockwork, every ten years or so there would be an earthquake that would destroy much of what they had built since the last earthquake.

During the 1600’s earthquake activity tapered off and there was an explosion of baroque architecture, both ecclesiastic and lay that made Antigua one of the most beautiful cities in the New World. The city prospered and by 1770 had a population of over 60,000. But those damn earthquakes kept happening. in 1717, 1751 and finally in 1773, virtually levelling the city in the process.

By 1776 the Spanish had had enough and ordered everybody to get out and move to what is today Guatemala City. Most did and Santiago de los Caballeros was given a new name, pretty well by accident – Antigua Guatemala. In the 1800’s less than 10,000 people remained living in a city of ‘beautiful ruins’, many of which remain to this very day.

Beautiful Ruins, Antigua Guatemala
Beautiful Ruins

In the 20th century the city was rediscovered by artists and language schools who found it a perfectly romantic place to learn to draw or paint or to learn Spanish. This in turn brought other types of tourists, like our group. In 1979 UNESCO named it a World Heritage Site describing it as follows:

    The pattern of straight lines established by the grid of north-south and east-west streets and inspired by the Italian Renaissance, is one of the best examples in Latin American town planning and all that remains of the 16th-century city. Most of the surviving civil, religious, and civic buildings date from the 17th and 18th centuries and constitute magnificent examples of colonial architecture in the Americas. These buildings reflect a regional stylistic variation known as Barroco antigueño. Distinctive characteristics of this architectural style include the use of decorative stucco for interior and exterior ornamentation, main facades with a central window niche and often a deeply-carved tympanum, massive buildings, and low bell towers designed to withstand the region’s frequent earthquakes. Among the many significant historical buildings, the Palace of the Captains General, the Casa de la Moneda, the Cathedral, the Universidad de San Carlos, Las Capuchinas, La Merced, Santa Clara, among others, are worth noting.

Today there are about 35,000 people living in Antigua, just over half the number almost 250 years ago, most making a living as a result of the ruins people come to see and the destruction that drove the original population away in the first place. There’s definitely some irony in that.

Hotel Camino Real

Front Desk

Once again Victor has outdone himself in the selection of our hotel for our stay in Antigua. From the moment you walk into the Hotel Camino Real you are greeted with the sight of flowers everywhere like this display in the lobby.

Lobby Flowers

It is a modern hacienda style hotel that has interesting nooks and crannies to explore where you find things like this old cart festooned with flowers.

Old Cart

Or this courtyard fountain.

Courtyard Fountain

The rooms are spacious with all the modern amenities, but designed in a manner that you do feel you are staying in a hacienda.

Room 506

The breakfast buffet at La Velas restaurant was outstanding, probably the best on the entire trip and why I didn’t take a picture of it I don’t know.

Breakfast Nook

And of course it has a really cozy bar where you can also get a meal.

Camino Real Bar
Seating Area, Camino Real Bar

After a day of trekking the streets of Antigua some in our group enjoyed the pleasure of soaking in the large jacuzzi.

Camino Real Jacuzzi

The Camino Real is the type of hotel where you might go just for the experience of relaxing without ever leaving the premises. It’s an added bonus that it is just a short walk away from the centre of Antigua.

Exploring Antigua

Hospital of San Pedro, Antigua
Hospital of San Pedro

We had a couple of guided tours with our Guatemalan guide Tony, but for the purposes of this post I’m going to mix what we saw together. The bottom line is that there is a ton of things to see in Antigua and they are easy to walk between. If you get fatigued by one church or religious institution after another then this might not be your favourite Central American city. However, I can guarantee that you will not get tired of the ruins, especially those places that are partially ruins and partially working churches, convents or even hotels and restaurants.

Guatemalan & Antigua Flags

A good place to start is the Parque Central which is the city’s equivalent of a Mexican zocalo with the Guatemalan and Antiguan flags flying overhead. It’s the beating heart of Antigua with a mixture of locals and tourists with only a few annoying hawkers to avoid.

Parque Centrale, Antigua, Guatemala
Parque Central

There is a reconstructed fountain that originally dated from 1737 with four mermaids squeezing water out from their ample bosoms. How did that get by the nuns and priests of 18th century Guatemala?

Mermaid’s Fountain, Parque Central

Behind the fountain is the Catedral de Santiago which was almost completely destroyed in the 1773 earthquake and only partially ever rebuilt. It’s actually one of the less prepossessing buildings in the city.

Catedral de Santiago, Antigua
Catedral de Santiago

At right angles to the cathedral is the Palacio de los Capitaines General which is a two story colonnaded structure that once housed the administrative offices for the entire province of Guatemala. It too was severely damaged in the 1773 earthquake and abandoned for some time. Here is a woodcut from 1840 showing the cathedral and the palacio. Note the rubble in front of the palacio.

1840 Antigua Woodcut

Today the colonnade provides welcome shade and houses a number of businesses and restaurants.

The woodcut makes it appear that Antigua is literally almost at the base of Volcan de Agua on the left and the twin peaks of Volcan Acatenango and Volcan Fuego on the right. This is a bit of an exaggeration, but the presence of these volcanoes cannot be ignored and in fact is what gives Antigua some of its romantic charm.

Vulcan de Agua was the one responsible for the mudslide that destroyed the second attempt by the Spanish to establish a city in the area. Although it has not erupted during recorded time (the mudslide apparently not qualifying as an eruption) it most definitely is not dormant. During our stay in Antigua it regularly sent out smoke signals.

Volcan de Agua, Antigua Guatemala
Volcan de Agua

One of the more interesting of the partially ruined buildings is the large complex that was once the home of the Franciscan order in Antigua. They were the first to arrive in the area, even before the mudslide of 1541 and upon moving to the present site in 1579 set out building a huge church complete with cloisters and other buildings required to run a proper monastery. Despite set backs from numerous earthquakes they persevered until finally they were done in by the 1773 earthquake and heeded the order to move to Guatemala City.

The structures lay in ruins for almost two hundred years when the Franciscans returned in 1961 to start a five year reconstruction. Talk about a fixer upper project! The reconstruction is only partial so that today it looks like this.

San Francisco Church, Antigua
San Francisco Church

Tony points out the coat-of-arms over the front entrance to the church which is that of the Hapsburg’s. This family once dominated Spain, Austria-Hungary, the low countries and much of Italy and Germany, but somehow I never associated them with the New World. Another travel related learning lesson.

Hapsburg Crest

The area around the church is very busy with many fruit and vegetable vendors which this slimmed down version of Friar Tuck is checking out.

Franciscan Monk, Antigua Guatemala
Franciscan Monk

If you’ve got a sweet tooth then this stall is the place to come with a great variety of goodies available.

Candies for Sale

On the other hand, if you are desperate you might gravitate to this place.

Body Part Candles

Those are candles in the shape of body parts – limbs and various organs. Why would you want one of these you might ask? Because there is a saint buried in San Francisco Church and being of recent vintage his powers of healing are apparently very strong. Peter of Saint Joseph de Betancur or Hermano Pedro as he was usually called while alive in the 17th century, was a goatherd from the Canary Islands who made his way to Antigua and became a Franciscan brother. Using his experience with goats, he shepherded the sick, the poor and especially those imprisoned. He was that rarest of beings, a truly good man. In 2002 he was canonized by Pope John Paul II, becoming Guatemala’s first saint and now people from all over Central America flock to this church seeking his divine intervention. There are many here today and Tony wisely suggests that we not disturb their prayers. While I don’t believe in this stuff, I don’t begrudge those that do as long as they respect my right to disbelieve and don’t try to convert me.

The street that the Franciscan complex is on is called Calle de los Pasos which means ‘street of the steps’ and contains a number of stations of the cross where people congregate on Good Friday which is a big deal in Antigua. One thing I really like when visiting countries like Spain and those in Latin America is the tradition of using tiles or paint to give the street name a personality that we just don’t do in North America. There’s just something about this sign that makes you want to walk down this street.

Calle de Los Pasos, Antigua, Guatemala
Calle de Los Pasos

Undoubtedly the most famous landmark in Antigua is the Santa Catalina Archway that once connected two convents on either side of 5th avenue and viewed from the north side has a splendid backdrop of Volcan de Agua behind it. Although you can’t tell from this photograph because I cropped it severely, this street was jam packed with tourists; the most I saw at any one place in Guatemala. Everyone wants their picture taken in front of the archway. Everyone except me – I figure if I took this picture, there was a good chance I was there.

Santa Catalina Archway, Antigua, Guatemala
Santa Catalina Archway

Time for lunch. There is a good selection of restaurants on two sides of the Parque Central and I don’t include chain restaurants under the term ‘good’ although there is also a selection of them as well. Alison and I found a place inside the colonnade and she had potato and leek soup with side salad. I went with fagioli soup which I always enjoy and breaking the rules of not drinking beer with soup, had a local craft beer, Muy Noble Blonde Ale and it was.

Potato Leek Soup and Fagioli Soup

There’s still a whole lot more to see in Antigua starting with another ruined monastery that has been repurposed as a series of museums and a luxury hotel. The former Dominican monastery, Santo Domingo de Cerro was one of the largest in Antigua until it was levelled in the 1773 earthquake and abandoned. It sat in ruins for even longer than San Francisco before being purchased and converted into the five star Caso Santo Domingo which opened in 1989. The building incorporates portions of the ruins directly into a modern structure in a way that very much preserves the feeling of being in a monastery, except one with spas, swimming pools, HDTVs and other modern amenities that monks could only dream of.

Caso Santo Domingo, Antigua, Guatemala
Caso Santo Domingo

Non-guests are not allowed to just wander around the hotel, but they can visit some of the small museums on site including the catacombs where you can stand on plexiglass and look down at the remains of this nameless monk.

Catacomb Bones

Here is another example of the combination of old and new, this time to create a work of art which I call ‘Bells and Babies’

Bells & Babies

Tony drew our attention to this rendition of the Last Supper which is very unusual. If Tony had not pointed it out, I would not have noticed that Jesus was serving up tortillas and not the usual bread you would see in European versions. Another case of syncretism with the tortilla, which far predated Christianity in Guatemala, being incorporated into the new religion’s rites.

Last Supper with Tortillas

Now I’ll just fast forward to a few more of the things we saw, lest the reader get bored with too much detail. This is the interior of the Colonial Art Museum which as you can see is not exactly overflowing with tourists.

Alison in the Colonial Art Museum

The architecture of this old palace was more interesting than the religious artifacts on display, although there was a modern art exhibit that featured famous disasters of Guatemala. Based on the number of paintings, they have a lot choose from.

Inside the Colonial Art Museum

I don’t want to give the impression that most of the ruins in Antigua have been repurposed, most have not. One of the most famous is Nuestra Senora del Carmen which actually survived relatively unscathed from the 18th century earthquakes only to be devastated by one in 1917 and again in 1976 when the dome collapsed. It is indeed a beautiful ruin and the presence of the small tourist oriented market doesn’t detract in the least.

Nuestra Senora del Carmen, Antigua, Guatemala
Nuestra Senora del Carmen

Antigua is one of the few places that still maintains a public laundry facility that is still used by residents.

Public Washing Space, Antigua, Guatemala
Public Laundry Facility
Public Wash Basins

One more church and I promise it will be the last. These are photos of the exterior of La Merced another of the best examples of the baroque style for which the city is famous.

La Merced, Antigua, Guatemala
La Merced

This is as ornate as it gets.

La Merced Angel

This was our final stop on our guided tour of Antigua. On the way back to the hotel I noticed this intriguing Station of the Cross showing the Deposition or removal from the cross after Jesus dies. Its a portable float that will be carried through the streets during Easter celebrations. That’s something I’d like to see.

Moveable Station of the Cross

Cerro de la Cruz

We had a fair amount of free time to explore Antigua on our own and the one thing I would absolutely recommend doing is taking the walk up to the top of Cerro de la Cruz which is the wooded hill on the opposite side of the city from the volcanoes. It’s not too taxing, involving a series of stairways. The view is outstanding with Volcan de Agua  and its classic pyramid shape we usually associate with volcanoes.

Alison on Cerro de la Cruz

The city is laid out below and you get a much better idea of just how many convents and monasteries there once were and how big they were. This is a view of La Merced from Cerro de la Cruz.

La Merced from Cerro de la Cruz

And of course you are going to want to sit on the retaining wall and get your photo taken here. Even I succumbed to that.

Over Antigua

The Jade Factory and Museum

Jade Mask

Jade was a big deal in the Mayan world. They had very little gold, no diamonds and few other precious gems so jade, which was reasonably abundant, took on an importance to the Mayans that remains to this day. Technically jade is a commercial term that applies to items made from either jadeite or nephrite which are two completely different minerals in composition, but look so alike that it was not until the 1800’s that they were identified as distinct minerals. While most people associate jade with the shade of green of that name, it comes in many different colours depending upon impurities exist within it, as the natural colour is white.

We had been hoping to buy some decent jade while on this trip and Victor had advised us to wait until Antigua and the Jade Maya Museum and Factory where there would be no issues as to authenticity or quality. It was good advice.

Jade Maya is just off the Parque Centrale and features a guided tour followed by a chance to purchase some high quality jade products that are made on site.

Alison in the Jade Museum
The Jade Factory

There are a number of exquisite masks on display including the one above and this one which is a full scale replica of the famous Mask of Tikal.

Mask of Tikal

Upon seeing this beautiful piece I decided to buy my own, albeit a much smaller version. He now sits on the mantle of my fireplace at home and is a great reminder of our visit to this wonderful city of ruins.

My Mask of Tikal

We end of visit to Guatemala by visiting one of the greatest of all Mayan cities, Tikal. Hope to see you there.

Many thanks again to Dale of The Maritime Explorer for his wonderful insights. We can’t wait for his Tikal installment. 


San Simon – A detour on a Guatemala tour

Life is full of detours, our Guatemala tours can be as well. Dale of The Maritime Explorer takes on one such detour as he ventures with Victor over to San Simon. Read on to find out how it went.




At the end of my last post on beautiful Lake Atitlan I wrote that I would see you next in the city of Antigua during our Guatemala tour, but we’ve decided to take a detour to see something that wasn’t on the original itinerary. By we, I mean a group led by expert guide Victor Romagnoli for Canadian travel company Adventures Abroad with which we have travelled many times over the past twenty-five years and never been disappointed. This tour is a specialized one-off designed by Victor and will include all seven countries that make up Central America. A few days ago we arrived in Guatemala from Honduras and I have been blown away by this very unique country. It is the only one in Central America where a significant number of the population are Indigenous Mayans. During our stay in the market town of Chichicastenango where the population is overwhelmingly Mayan, I got my first glimpse of the syncretic religious practices that incorporate Catholicism with traditional Mayan gods. Our group saw it again with the cult of Maximón in Santiago Atitlan and when our local guide Tony mentioned that there was another, quite different shrine between Lake Atitlan and Antigua we all said we need to see it. So here we go to visit San Simon in the village of San Andrés Itzapa. Won’t you join us?

Who is San Simon?

Well if you were a practicing Christian, you would probably say he was one of the more obscure apostles who was given the moniker Simon the Zealout to distinguish him from Simon Peter, the alpha apostle and from a brother of Jesus also called Simon. His symbol is, of all things, a saw. Here is a sculpture of him in the ancient Saint John Lateran basilica in Rome by Francesco Moratti with saw in hand. One of the many explanations for his death in England, Egypt, Persia, Armenia or Iberia (take your pick) was that he was sawn in half.

St. Simon the Zealot

So far, so good – just another proselytizing apostle who met a grisly death. His Saint’s Day is October 28th. Keep that in mind.

Now the title of this post refers to a playboy saint and the guy up above doesn’t fit that bill at all. So was there another St. Simon or San Simon as the Spanish speaking world would call him?

In the last post we met Maximón, tucked away in his moveable shrine in the village of Santiago Atitlan.  Now he fits the bill as the cigar-smoking, money grubbing, hard drinking, womanizing rascal we might rightly describe as a playboy or more accurately perhaps, a roué or wastrel. But a saint? Hardly. Is it just a coincidence that October 28th is also Maximón’s feast day? Maybe not.

Maximon of Santiago Atitlan

We are headed to the small village of San Andrés Itzapa which is about five miles (8 kms.) off the Pan-American Highway near the city of Chimaltenango, to find out more about this mysterious character. Our local guide Tony tells us that there is a permanent temple or shrine to San Simon here that draws pilgrims from all over Latin America.

Actually we never seem to come to a town, but all get out on a country road where there is a lane too narrow for our bus to enter that apparently leads to the shrine. Immediately on stepping off the bus I can smell the acrid fumes of what could be burning rubber. Tacked to a telephone pole at the end of the lane is this poster and there’s a fascinating story behind it that’s not apropos a visit to San Simon.


This is Sandra Torres, former first lady of Guatemala from 2008 to 2012. But like Hilary Clinton, being second fiddle was not enough. She wanted to succeed her husband to the Presidency and tried to run for President in 2011 and replace him when his term was up in early 2012. The only problem was that the Guatemalan constitution forbids relatives of the sitting President to run in subsequent elections and the courts ruled against her. No problem. In a move even Hilary has not thought of, she promptly divorced her husband Álvaro Colom and ran again in 2015, losing to a comedian, Jimmy Morales who ran on the slogan “Neither corrupt, nor a thief”. Morales found that running a country was no joke and by the time his term was up he was apparently both corrupt and a thief. Reenter Sandra for a third time. Always viewed as corrupt herself and with investigators on her tail, the Presidency would make her immune from prosecution. Sounds familiar. Alas, poor Sandra lost again and was charged with corruption almost immediately by the new President who had run on a promise to “Lock her up!”. Also sounds familiar. Guatemalan politics is nothing if not interesting.

We are also confronted with this banner which has Jesus in the middle flanked by his mom on one side and I presume, San Simon on the other. Even I can decipher that this is some type of spiritual centre.

Centro Espiritual

I will save you the time of translating this. Here is what it says according to a pretty lousy internet translator, but it gives you the gist.

You have problems in love, you do not pay your money, you want to raise your business, you want luck in lotteries or you suffer from supernatural diseases.

You want to know if you can be the victim of a malignant spell, this is your chance to free yourself from everything bad, change your life today, be a trickster.

Even though Jesus is the middleman in this (literally) it appears that the guy on the right is the one to whom these prayers will be made.

Heading down the lane we come upon shop after shop selling replicas of San Simon and just like t-shirts, he comes in small, medium and large. Unlike Maximón who, at least in Santiago Atitlan, sports a beard and in addition to a tie, wears traditional Mayan clothes, these San Simons sport typical western garb. Why their heads are covered in plastic bags, like victims of a Mafia hit, I don’t know.

San Simon X 3
Three San Simons

As we approach a gateway through which you need to pass to get into a plaza in front of the shrine, Tony says to watch out for witches. He says they hang out here to cast spells and hexes for people who want revenge on someone they think has crossed them. Apparently mistresses are the favoured targets. They advertise their availability by smoking cigars and sure enough there is a woman doing just that by the entrance. I don’t want to take the risk of getting hexed myself by taking an obvious photo so I shot her from afar.

Mayan Witch

The plaza revealed the source of the acrid smoke. There were a number of sacrificial fires burning with Mayan shamans chanting in front of them and I presume those who were kneeling were the hopeful beneficiaries of these requests for intervention.

Mayan Shamans, San Simon Shrine
Mayan Shamans

This video gives a little better idea of the scene. The voice is Tony explaining what’s going on.

It’s time to enter the shrine itself and from the steps I look back and get a closer look at the shamana who appears to be in some sort of trance. In case you are wondering if I was not feeling like a voyeur about to enter a place I thought was peddling pure bullshit, the answer is definitely “Yes.” But, no one who actually believed in this stuff seemed to mind our presence.

Mayan Shamana

Sleeping dogs are always a good sign when entering a holy place. This one was no Cerberus. How it could be comfortable in that position was beyond me, but as the wise adage goes, I let him lie.

Sleeping Dog outside San Simon Shrine

This is the interior of the San Simon Shrine and no old time saloon could outdo it in terms of being a smoke filled room.

San Simon Shrine
Shrine of San Simon

There he was in all his glory with a line up of dedicated believers eager to ask him for his favour. There were about a dozen in line on the day we visited which, from videos I’ve seen on You Tube was quite a small number. The one thing we were not going to do was get in line and pretend we were supplicants. There is a limit to this voyeurism. But I did get close enough to get a photo of San Simon and was able to observe him relatively close up.

Photo of San Simon
San Simon

Until I saw the plastic bag over his head, I had assumed the replicas for sale were just wearing the bags to protect them from dust, but apparently it’s part of his shtick. Now I’ve seen statues venerated around the world by believers of many faiths, but I’ve never seen one quite like San Simon, unless you count his alter ego Maximón from yesterday. This was just plain seriously weird.

A closer look reveals, in addition to the hanging snowman, offerings of beer, cigars, rum, food and I suspect his favourite, cash money.

Praying to San Simon

The smoke was coming not only from seemingly hundreds of candles, but also from the lit cigars and cigarettes of San Simon dummies who were seated before the real San Simon. What they were praying for I have no idea.

San Simon Smoking
Smoking San Simons

As if things couldn’t get any more bizarre, at the back of the shrine a scaled down version of a mariachi band was playing. Tony said it was common for shriners to hire a band because apparently San Simon likes his music as much as his booze and tobacco.

Band at San Simon Shrine
San Simon Band

So what exactly are people asking San Simon to do for them? Is it good health, luck in love, erasing money troubles – all the usual things people think they should get in exchange for lighting a candle and saying a prayer or two? Well all those things on the wall are photos, plaques and other forms of thanks to San Simon for granting their wishes. The great majority of them are thanking San Simon for getting them the hell out of Guatemala!

Thank You For Getting Us Into the USA, San Simon Shrine
Thank You For Getting Us Into the USA

Some are more mundane like a new car and a couple of motorcycles or a nice fat baby.

San Simon Thanked
Thanks San Simon

My research for this post also turned up the fact that a lot of drug dealers or worse come here to ask San Simon to make sure they don’t get caught. They don’t tend to leave behind obvious evidence of thanks, but hey, that new car and the motorcycles had to come from somewhere.

Visiting the shrine of San Simon was something I will long remember and reaffirms once again, why travel is so vital to a better understanding of the world. You can be an armchair traveller all you want, and in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic that’s all any of us can be, but I yearn for my next Adventures Abroad trip.

In the next post we will definitely get to Antigua. See you there.

Many thanks again to Dale of The Maritime Explorer for sharing his insights. We look forward to his next adventure!


Chichicastenango – Guatemalan Market Town

We love first-hand accounts of how our tours run and are so thankful for Dale of The Maritime Explorer for sharing with us his take on one of our Central American tours. This time, it is all about Chichicastenango. Enjoy!

We are close to the home stretch on Victor Romagnoli’s Central American odyssey for Adventures Abroad. Previously the group has visited Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and lastly the ruins of Copan in Honduras. Today we are crossing back into Guatemala which we briefly traversed on the way to Copan. Our destination is the Guatemalan highland town of Chichicastenango which is world renowned for its Mayan market and syncretic religious practices. It’s a full day’s drive from the border to our destination, but I never mind travelling through a countryside I’ve never visited before – a stranger in a strange land so to speak, to parrot Robert Heinlein who was in turn parroting the Israelites time and exodus from Egypt. It’s literally a story of travel as old as the Bible and I hope you’ll come along for the journey.

Guatemala 101

The one thing I have learned on this great trip so far is that no two Central American countries are alike. Despite our tendency to stereotype them all as Banana Republics, nothing could be further from the truth. I don’t need to go into detail on what makes each one different, you can read my posts from each country for that, but suffice it to say that Guatemala promises to be a completely different experience from where we’ve been and where we are going. There’s a number of reasons for that starting with the make up of Guatemala’s population.

Guatemala has by far the largest number of indigenous people of any of the Central American countries; fully 44% of the people are identified as such in the last census of which the overwhelming majority are Mayans. However, Mayans are not one homogenous group, but many sub-groups speaking many different Mayan tongues which are not dialects, but completely separate languages. This map shows the predominant language in different areas of the country. Although over 90% of the population speaks Spanish (Castilian) as a first or second language, the map shows that the country is definitely not a melting pot, but more a patchwork quilt.

Guatemalan Languages Map

Guatemala has the most people of any Central America country – over 17 million and growing at one of the fastest rates in the Western Hemisphere. The average age of Guatemalans is only twenty and the number of people over age 65, less than 5%. Compare that to an average age of 40 in Canada with 16% over 65 and you have completely opposite demographic patterns. On top of that, Guatemalans average only 5 feet one inch in average height, allegedly the shortest in the world, so we are going to stick out like old, white, tall people in a sea of young, brown, short people. Should be interesting to say the least.

Guatemala also has the largest urban centre in Central America, Guatemala City with a metropolitan population of close to four million and growing exponentially due to the high birth rates and rural migration. That rapid growth has led to the city becoming infamous for its slums or asentamientos of which La Limonada with over 60,000 residents is the largest outside Brazil in Latin America. It is a literal hell hole where many of the residents making a living picking saleable items from garbage that is dumped there. If you ever want to know why so many Guatemalans flee their country for Mexico, United States and even Canada, read Don Winslow’s great novel The Border .  In part it tells the story of Nico, a young Guatemalan boy who lives in El Basurero (the dump in English) a thinly disguised La Limonada, and is forced to flee from the gangs that dominate and control the slum through intimidation and murder. His effort to get to El Norte is a truly amazing read and far better than Jeanine Cummins’ American Dirt which to my mind is a rip off of the former.

Where Guatemala is actually very similar to the other Central American countries we have visited is its history of repression, revolution, civil war and seemingly unending violence, largely funded by American interests. The main sport of the nation today seems to be trying and usually acquitting former politicians of all political stripes on corruption and even genocide charges. Despite this, tourism in Guatemala, at least before Covid -19, is booming compared to its southern neighbours, El Salvador and Honduras. However, it is restricted mostly to the capitol, Lake Atitlan and the UNESCO World Heritage city of Antigua as well as the Mayan ruins of Tikal. With the exception of Guatemala City, which we will drive through, we will be seeing all the other tourist hot spots. We will be led through Guatemala by the voluble Tony de la Torre who, as we will learn over the next few days, seems to know everyone in the country.

Tony, the Guatemalan Guide

However, while Chichicastenango is not exactly unknown, it receives only a fraction of the visitors the other places do. So with that introduction to this sixth Central American country let’s get a move on.

The border crossing back into Guatemala from Honduras goes smoothly and before long we are back at the junction of Highway 10 and heading north to a left turn onto Highway 9 which will take us all the way to Guatemala City. The road conditions are surprising good and most of the major towns are by passed so we make good time. The countryside is quite pleasant with well forested rolling hills interspersed with agricultural valleys. This is not volcano country, but that will be coming up once we reach Guatemala City.

Victor makes no promises of how long it will take to get from one end of the capital city to the other. In places there are four lane or even wider highways and in others we are down to a crowded one way street with red lights seemingly every block. The traffic is far worse than any place we’ve been on this tour, but still nowhere near nightmarish. We do get stuck in a traffic jam a few times, but usually not for long. Most of the cars are reasonably new and some, like this pickup are carrying interesting cargo. Some lucky kid is going to have a ball smashing that piñata.

Giant Pinata, Guatemala City

The most interesting thing I see in Guatemala City is the La Limonada slum which stretches for miles in a ravine which is crossed by the main highway a good 100 yards or more above it. It’s sobering to think that here we are in air conditioned comfort crossing over the heads thousands of people living in abject poverty below. I try to think up an appropriate analogy, but I can’t.

On the other side of the city the highway starts to climb steeply as we head into the Guatemalan Highlands and the volcanoes once again make their appearance on the left side of the bus. There is a steady line of about a dozen them that run all the way from Guatemala City to the Mexican border. The scenery begins to take on a distinct alpine appearance with many buildings made of huge wooden timbers. We also start to see a lot of the ‘chicken buses’ for which Guatemala is famous.

Chicken Buses

The chicken buses are so named because a lot of people bring their chickens on board, just like every stereotype you’ve ever thought of third world bus transportation. They are repurposed school buses from the United States and Canada (I saw few Bluebirds maybe from Brantford and New Flyers definitely from Winnipeg) that are the main means of getting from town to town in Guatemala, especially the highlands where most of the Indigenous population is based. They are outrageously decked out and fitted with motors that make them go like hell. The drivers put their faith in God and not their common sense so you see them sometimes passing on blind turns, careening around corners almost on two wheels and other not so safe maneuvers. Personally I think the name comes from the way they seem to play chicken with traffic coming the other way. I’m glad I’m not sitting in the front seat.

After what seems like hours we turn onto the road to Chichicastenango and the bus begins a painfully slow ascent up a high mountain pass and then down and up again. In places the turns are so sharp that the driver has to stop and back up to get into position to make the turn. Meanwhile the chicken buses come rushing at us as if they really are protected by God and I keep expecting to see one go hurtling off the cliff to a fiery death hundreds of feet below. The people we are seeing out walking the roads or riding one speed bikes, often in the middle of nowhere, are pretty well all Mayans, many dressed in traditional costumes which of course means they are not costumes at all, but their regular clothes.

Finally, well below us, Chichicastenango comes into view. Still it’s at an elevation of 1,985 metres (6,447 feet) so we’ve been pretty high up going over these mountain passes.

The Mayan Inn

Mayan Inn, Chichicastenango
Mayan Inn

Our accommodation for the next two nights is the Mayan Inn and once again Victor has booked us into a place that has a perfect location in the middle of Chichicastenango, has a really nice ambience and is comfortable as hell. It consists of two complexes across a narrow cobbled street from each other and dates all the way back to 1932 when Guatemalan tourism was in its infancy and a fellow by the name of Alfred Clark acquired these properties and proceeded to fill them with art and artifacts of the Mayan Quiché (K’iche’) people who are the dominant group in the area. Our rooms are mostly in the building called the annex across from the building above where the bar and restaurant are located.

This is the door knocker for the annex.


Inside there is a lovely central courtyard festooned with flowers where each morning a scarlet macaw and a green parrot are brought by their owner and places on perches for the day.

Annex Courtyard, Mayan Inn, Chichicastenango
Annex Courtyard, Mayan Inn

Every room is different and each has a working fireplace in recognition that it does get cold up here in the Guatemalan highlands. This is our room A 12.

Room A 12

After unpacking there’s time to look around the place and its more like a museum than a hostelry, very similar to El Convento in Leon, Nicaragua. There are a number Mayan wall drawings with Mayan hieroglyphs above them interspersed with traditional Catholic religious icons such as you see above. This mixture of traditional Mayan religion and post Spanish conquest Catholicism was to become the ‘theme’ as it were of much of our visit to Chichicastenango and later the Lake Atitlan area. Although I am not a religious person, I have always been interested in learning about religious beliefs around the world and in particular syncretism, which is the combination of religions, often with almost diametrically opposite forms of worship, into a recognizable third type of religion. Probably voodoo or obeah are the best known examples to most people, but it exists throughout the world and one could argue that it is growing in Indigenous communities in North America where the revival of traditional religious beliefs is a definite trend.

Courtyard Main Building

This is one of many paintings found on the property depicting people wearing the traditional Quiché garb with Chichicastenango in the background.

Traditional Quiche Dress

The courtyard in the main building is a riot of colour and there are a surprising number of twists and turns in what turns out to be a very large inner compound.

Flowers in Main Courtyard, Mayan Inn, Chichicastenango
Flowers in Main Courtyard, Mayan Inn

It was only on about my third reconnaissance of the property that I took a turn that took me out to another courtyard from whence this view. That’s the Chichicastenango cemetery down below and I knew immediately I had to get a closer look.

View from the Mayan Inn

Chichicastenango Cemetery

I used the phrase ‘a stranger in a strange land’ earlier in this post and from the moment Alison and I stepped into the streets of Chichicastenango I have never experienced this feeling more strongly. The reason is readily apparent – we are like Gulliver in the land of Lilliput, towering above these really tiny people, the women averaging well under five feet. Also the fact that almost all of them are dressed in the same manner they would have been centuries ago, in colourful traje (dress), huipil (blouse), or corte (skirt) along with the tzute (head cloth) makes us, dressed in traditional modern costume, the real outsiders. However, it’s not an uncomfortable feeling. They just basically ignore us.

My first question upon arriving at the cemetery and seeing this sight is, “How the hell can they afford this?”. After all Guatemala is a poor country and some of these tombs are as big as small houses. The answer apparently lies in that combination of Mayan and Christian beliefs. The Mayans very much believe in the practice of honouring the dead, in fact, failure to do so can lead to the soul being trapped between life and death and no one wants that.

Cemetery of Chichicastenango
Chichicastenango Cemetery

Every year just before the Day of the Dead ceremonies at the beginning of November, the families repaint the graves, whether they be mausoleums or simple crosses. The colours do have a meaning as well.

Chichicastenango Mausoleums

Some of the mausoleums are works of art in themselves.

Colourful Mausoleums, Chichicastenango
Colourful Mausoleums

Others are dedicated specifically to one individual and reflect that person’s overriding passion in life. In this case car racing apparently as there is a miniature race track incorporated into the structure.

Racetrack Mausoleum

Obviously not every person in Chichicastenango has the means to afford a grand mausoleum, but the simple painted crosses in their varying colours are almost as interesting and photogenic.

Cemetery Crosses

What I did not take a picture of in the Chichicastenango cemetery was the most interesting thing we saw there. At the highest point in the cemetery there is a flat covered concrete floor which is there specifically for sacrifices. Now the word ‘sacrifice’ has many connotations and the pre-Columbian Mayans practiced many of them including human sacrifice. Post conquest, the sacrifices were toned down, but they have continued over the years with the addition of a few Catholic additions, especially candles.

There was a family who had gathered for a sacrifice which was a circular collection of offerings including modern Mayan essentials – food, alcohol and tobacco. Over the next few days we would see a number of Mayan sacrifices and all would involves these three elements. Along with dozens of candles, all this is lit on fire and prayers made while the sacrifice burns. It is a sacred moment for the family and not one that should be photographed without permission which the family was not giving. If we were feeling like strangers when we set out for the cemetery, watching this ceremony cemented the feeling.

Returning to the Mayan Inn we passed one of the churches of Chichicastenango and observed sacrificial fires on the forefront of the building. The combination of the cross and the ancient ritual of the Mayan sacrifice taking place in a supposedly Christian place of worship spoke volumes about the Mayan syncretic beliefs.

Mayan Sacrifice Fires

Back at the inn it’s time for a cocktail at the bar followed by dinner. Each couple has a man assigned to them during the stay who, dressed in Quiché garb, acts as both waiter and porter. This was our chap and I’m sorry, but I’ve forgotten his name.

Mayan Waiter, Chichicastenango
Mayan Waiter

The dinner is vegetarian, which is actually a nice change, although I wouldn’t want to do it every night.

Vegetarian Dinner

This has been one heck of a day, but I’m looking forward even more to tomorrow  it’s market day in Chichicastenango.

Chichicastenango Market

I get up really early and go outside the Mayan Inn courtyard to see the preparations for the Chichicastenango market which has been held here every Thursday and Sunday for hundreds of years. It is the largest market in Central America and is a tourist attraction, but most definitely not a tourist market. The population of Chichicastenango and surrounding area is overwhelmingly K’iche’ Mayan and the products offered for sale are almost all primarily for the locals. The market spreads over a number of blocks and includes indoor and outdoor elements. It appears to be at the highest point in the town with the result that everything needs to be hauled up here, much of it by human foot power. I am amazed at the size of the loads that the people, mostly women, are carrying on their backs.

Hauling Goods to Market, Chichicastenango
Hauling Goods to Market

Back at the Mayan Inn a traditional breakfast awaits and then it’s off to explore the market.

Breakfast at the Mayan Inn

Victor suggests checking out the poultry market which is in a closed street only a block from the hotel and it’s pretty interesting. The birds, which all seem to be remarkably fit looking, are kept in woven baskets covered with open netting that lets the birds move around, but not escape.

Young Girl with Chickens

It’s not just chickens for sale, but ducks.

Ducks for Sale


Turkeys For Sale, Chichicastenango Market
Turkeys For Sale

And chicks.

Chicks for Sale

The most colourful part of a market world famous for its colours is without doubt the textiles, most of which are made locally and reflect traditional patterns that have been around for over a thousand years.

Market Shirts, Chichicastenango
Market Shirts

Riot of Colour

I walked by this stall where this guy was dressing his distinctly unMayan looking mannequins.

Getting Dressed

And returned five minutes later to see them decked out in their fionery.

All Dressed, Chichicastenango Market
All Dressed

How about some aprons?


The Chichicastenango market is also well known for its pottery, which is not decorated for sale to tourists, but for every day use by the K’iche’ people. Again, there is a direct connect from these types of pottery and those used by the Mayans over two thousand years ago. By now the market was starting to get quite crowded, but there were no other tourists. Some did arrive later in the day by bus from Antigua or Lake Atitlan, but as far as I could tell the Adventures Abroad group was the only one actually staying in town which let us explore the market for the first couple of hours as the only tourists.


That stranger in a strange land feeling was continued in the market as there were so many items for sale that you would never see at home. Like this guy selling chunks of limestone. Say what?

Limestone Seller, Chichicastenango
Limestone Seller

In order to make tortillas you need corn flour and in order to make corn flour you need an alkaline substance, usually limestone, to use  in a process called nixtamalization which makes the corn flour digestable by humans. The process has been documented in Guatemala as far back as 1500 B.C., once again directly linking this market to customs that are thousands of years old.

I had to pay this lady to take here picture and even then she refused to smile, giving me the evil eye instead. Considering that the Mayans very much believe in witches and she is making brooms, maybe I should invest in an appropriate talisman.

Broom Maker, Chichicastenango Market
Broom Maker or Witch?

Flowers are always a popular attraction at any market, Chichicastenango being no exception with the flower market spread out on the steps of Iglesia Santo Tomás with the almost exclusively female vendors dressed in K’iche’ clothing.

Flowers for Sale
Chichicastenango Flower Seller

It’s not just flowers that are sold, but petals as well that are used in the Mayan sacrifice ceremonies.

Petals for Sale

The church was built in the 1500’s on top of what had been a Mayan temple. The K’iche’ people have not forgotten that and this fellow was worshipping/praying in front of the church doors and not inside as you would expect in a purely Christian rite.

Mayan Prayer

Homemade musical instruments were one of the few things that anyone made any effort to actually sell to us as obvious tourists. If one of the reasons you might want to avoid markets is harassment by over zealous vendors you don’t need to worry about that at Chichicastenango. Nobody got in our faces at any time. The contrast between what goes on in an Arab souk and here could not be greater.

Instrument Seller

The food portion of the Chichicastenango market is in a two story building from which you can get a great view of what is going on below. This is the vegetable market, a Christmas coloured collage of green and red.

Vegetable Market

This lady did look up at me and smiled – sorta anyway.

Vegetable Seller, Chichicastenango Market
Vegetable Seller

Beans anyone?


We were approached in this market by some kids selling good luck dolls and thinking back on the possible evil eye glare from the broom maker I persuaded Alison to buy some, just in case.

Alison Buying Mayan Dolls

The market also has an enclosed area where hot food is served and by now we were both hungry and footsore so we stopped at one of the many family run operations that are lined up side by side under a large tent. I chose the one that had the most locals eating at and we were not disappointed. These might have been the first fries I’d had in weeks and they were great as was the chicken. I started this visit to the Chichicastenango market with chicken and that’s where I’ll end it.

Meal at the Market, Chichicastenango
Meal at the Market

Chichicastenango is not the easiest place to get to, but more than worth the effort to be here on market day. It truly is one of the best markets I’ve ever been to.

Next we are off to one of the most beautiful lakes in the world, Atitlan, and I hope to see you there.

As always, a massive thank you goes to Dale of the Maritime Explorer for his wonderful words and photos.


Lake Atitlan – Guatemala’s Alpine Wonder

Another installment in the exciting Central American series with Dale of the Maritime Explorer. This time to one of our favourite destinations: Lake Atitlan.

This is my second post from the wondrous country of Guatemala which, despite years of civil unrest, finally seems to be returning to a semblance of normalcy that is seeing the return of tourists to the most popular areas. The first post highlighted the amazing market in the mountain town of Chichicastenango where I also got my first look at the syncretic religion practised by the K’iche’ Maya of the region. It definitely whetted my appetite to see more of this most unusual Central American country. While I am writing this at the height of the Covid-19 pandemic that has effectively ended tourism as we know it, I am hopeful that there will be a worldwide return to normalcy as well, I just don’t have a clue when. Once it does, this post might serve as an inspiration to visit one of the most beautiful places I’ve ever seen or been – Lake Atitlan. If, God forbid, things never return to normal and Lake Atitlan proves impossible to visit in the future, then let this post stand as a paean to its beauty.

Alison and I are in country number six of Victor Romagnoli’s specially created itinerary of every land in Central America for Canadian based Adventures Abroad. Our bus chugs up and over the mountains between Chichicastenango and Lake Atitlan which, as the crow, or more likely the vulture flies, is not that far away. We cross the Pan-American Highway at Los Encuentros and pass through the small city of Sololá which, like Chichicastenango is noted for its biweekly markets. Despite the short distance we have travelled, we have moved from the heartland of the K’iche’ Maya to that of the Kaqchikel Maya who speak a different language and whose native dress differs,. The two were traditional enemies and the Kaqchikel helped the Spaniards conquer the K’iche’ way back in the 1500’s, but not so long ago that there still isn’t bad blood between them. From the streets of Sololá we get our first glimpses of Lake Atitlan, almost 2,000 feet (600 metres) below.

Creation of Lake Atitlan

Lake Atitlan
Creation of Lake Atitlan

About 85,000 years ago there was one super volcano named Los Chocoyos that erupted in an event that blew it to pieces, sending ash as far away as Florida and Ecuador. It is reckoned to be one of the greatest volcanic eruptions of the last 100,000 years. Instead of of a huge mountain, there was now a huge hole, more properly a caldera, that gradually filled with water to create Lake Atitlan, much like Crater Lake in Oregon. From the map above you can get an idea of just how big Los Chocoyos was compared to the three volcanoes in existence today that sprung up after the explosion. They are veritable pimples compared to the original. Similar to Crater Lake it is also very deep, up to 1,120 feet (340 metres) with an average depth of 720 feet (220 metres) so it’s a long way to the bottom for those who drown on its surprisingly rough waters.

The great polymath and personal hero of mine, Alexander von Humboldt is often quoted as describing Lake Atitlan as the most beautiful lake in the world, yet I can find no record that he ever visited Guatemala during his epic expedition to Latin America between 1799-1804. Almost everywhere you go in Latin America, he shows up in statues, parks and street names, but the Lake Atitlan quote was either apocryphal or based on hearsay. Either way it doesn’t matter because I’m about to find out for myself as we pull into the mirador for a look at Lake Atitlan from above.

View of Lake Atitlan
Lake Atitlan from the Mirador

Alexander, you were right. This is a stunningly beautiful lake. Below is the view looking south and you can barely make out our destination, the town of Panajachel on the left.

View of Lake Atitlan to the South
Lake Atitlan Looking South

If there was ever a mirador from which you want to get your picture taken this is it. Photography buff Brian Palardy took this photo and it is one our favourites from the entire trip.

At Lake Atitlan
Above Lake Atitlan

Tomorrow we will be out on the lake, but for today we will content ourselves with settling into Panajachel and exploring one of Guatemala’s most famous tourist towns.


Panajachel or just ‘Pana’ as everybody seems to call it, is the first real tourist town we have been in for it seems like weeks, or at least the first town with any recognizable amount of tourists. After leaving Costa Rica, our Adventures Abroad group was about the only bunch of tourists, other than a few backpackers, in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras. This place almost comes as a shock with its narrow streets not exactly thronged, but with way more tourists than we have been used to seeing. There are restaurants and handicraft stores everywhere, but overall most of what is being offered for sale is crap. There are an amazing amount of really cheap t-shirts with dumb sayings on them that an amazing number of people are buying and wearing. I can never figure out why dumbasses want to let everyone know that that’s exactly what they are. There are also quite a number of seedy looking, rheumy-eyed expats that look like they would fit right into a Graham Greene or Malcolm Lowry novel.

I’m not saying that I didn’t like Panajachel, I just found it jolting after the relative authenticity of the places we had just come from. The town has a fabulous location on Lake Atitlan and Alison and I very much enjoyed walking in a loop around the town and returning along the waterfront. However, in preparing for this post I found that I never took a single photo of the place other than of the hotel.

Porta del Lago, Panajachel on Lake Atitlan
Porta del Lago

The Porta del Lago which I note is temporarily closed because of the pandemic, describes itself as a boutique hotel with which I might quibble. The Mayan Inn where we stayed in Chichicastenango and a number of other others on this trip were boutique hotels, this is not. However, it is still a very fine hotel with absolutely world class views from the rooms. This is the view from our room, 503.

View of Lake Atitlan from Porta del Lago Hotel
View from Room 503

It has a large swimming pool, some very nice Mayan handicrafts for sale and puts on an excellent breakfast buffet. I have no hesitation in recommending it to anyone who might get to Panajachel in the future.

On Lake Atitlan

In reading the itinerary for this trip one of the things I was most looking forward to was the day we were to spend exploring Lake Atitlan and a couple of its villages. Well, that day has arrived and before nine we are headed the short distance to the waterfront to board our boat and cross the lake to the town of Santiago Atitlan. It’s a beautiful day for a boat ride and soon we are pushing back from the dock at Panajachel and headed out on the open water.

Leaving Panajachel on Lake Atitlan
Leaving Panajachel

Now I mentioned that Alexander von Humboldt thought Lake Atitlan to be the most beautiful lake in the world, even though he apparently never actually saw it. However, one person who definitely did see it was the British writer Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World among other works. In his travelogue Beyond the Mexique Bay he compared it to Lake Como in Italy, but thought that the addition of volcanoes to the scene made it “really too much of a good thing.” Sorry, Aldous, but I disagree. These are the three volcanoes of Lake Atitlan and they don’t in any way detract from the grandeur of this lake.

Three Volcanoes of Lake Atitlan
Three Volcanoes of Atitlan

However, all is not sweetness and light when it comes to Lake Atitlan. Guatemala is miles behind most countries when it comes to protecting the environment and that has had a very deleterious affect on this lake. The combination of  high phosphorus fertilizers and raw sewage draining into the lake has created algae blooms and cyanobacteria that is lethal to the lake’s eco system. The system may have been able to resist these effects but for the introduction of a species of bass in the 1950’s for the purposes of creating both a sport and a food fishery. As usually happens when man tinkers with nature, this backfired spectacularly. The bass ate their way through the native fishes and when they were gone, even ate the ducklings and chicks of ducks and grebes that were unique to Lake Atitlan. By 2010 the lake was faced with the prospect of actually dying.

The good news is that since this near death experience the process has begun to be reversed as the use of fertilizers has been dramatically reduced and several sewage treatment plants have curtailed the draining of raw excrement into the lake. Right now the situation is apparently improving although nowhere near back the the way the lake was before the bloody bass were introduced. The Atitlan grebe is extinct and will never return. What is also gone, thankfully, is the horrible smell that cyanobacteria gives off, so this morning the lake looks blue and pristine, even if I know it’s not.

One other thing about Lake Atitlan which man can’t interfere with. That’s the Xocomil. It is a wind that is unique to the area and is created by warm Pacific air meeting cooler northern air over the waters and boy is it blowing today. The water might look calm from the photo above, but it’s actually rough as hell and the boat slams into the waves every five seconds or so sending a jolt down the spine that I’ll be paying for in days to come.

I can’t believe the local people are out in their makeshift boats with the prow just barely not going under with each approaching wave. They don’t seem too concerned so neither am I.

Four Fishermen on Lake Atitlan
Lake Atitlan Locals

Santiago Atitlan is located inside a long inlet which we enter after about a thirty minute crossing of the lake. The roughness subsides and we pull up to the dock where a number of people are collecting lake grass which I presume will be used as a type of fertilizer. I know I used to harvest eel grass every year from just off my wharf to use as a type of compost on my flower beds until the invasive European green crabs arrived and destroyed the grass beds.

Lake Grass Collector

Santiago Atitlan

Getting out, Victor and our Guatemalan guide Tony commandeer a fleet of tuk-tuks and we are soon whisked through the crowded streets of this bustling town to the central plaza.

View from the Tuk Tuk

Santiago Atitlan is home to yet another Mayan subgroup, the Tz’utujil people who once controlled much of Lake Atitlan until the Spaniards arrived. Today, aside from Panajachel, most of the villages around the lake are populated by Tz’utujil Mayans who, collectively, number only about 100,000 and have a syncretic form of religion which is absolutely fascinating.

As most people know, Santiago is the Spanish equivalent of St. James and this rather unprepossessing looking church is, in English, Saint James the Apostle Church. It dates all the way back to the 1540’s and lies in the shadow of the mighty Atitlan volcano which rises to 11,598 feet (3,535 metres) which in the Rockies would be a good sized mountain. The steps you see are actually over a thousand years old and once led to a Mayan temple which the Christians of course destroyed to build the church atop in an act of religious oneupmanship. But it didn’t actually work as we shall see as we enter what is one of the most fascinating churches I’ve ever visited anywhere.

Saint James the Apostle

Tony takes us on a guided tour of the interior which has more than a few things of passing interest starting with the various saints decorated by groups that are unique to Guatemala, the cofradias. These are religious brotherhoods that date back to the Spanish conquest and were originally intended to help spread Catholicism and stamp out native beliefs. Instead they have morphed into something similar to the krewes of Louisiana who each have their own distinct colours and symbols. The entire church is lined with these brightly coloured figures. The guy in the brown outfit looks like he’s pulling a move right out of Saturday Night Fever.

St. James Cofradias

These are the boys in red. Note the bright ties on two of them.

Red Cofradia

Sometimes things are not as they first seem to appear. This is the pink cofradia.

Pink Cofradia

But take a closer look at the Virgin Mary. WTF? She’s got two babies, not just the usual one. Here’s where things get tricky and try as I might, I can find no one coherent explanation for the two babies. Here is Tony’s version. The second baby is actually Judas. Yes, you read that right. For Mayans, the death of their religion at the hands of the Spanish priests was not cause for celebration or a great awakening, but rather an execration. The one figure from Christianity that many of them could embrace was Judas who was responsible for getting Christ killed and thus in their eyes, more powerful than Jesus. There are umpteen versions of the story and we shall see more even before we leave Santiago Atitlan, but let’s finish exploring the church first.

Jesus and Judas?

This is a group I call the blue krewe.

Blue Krewe

The altar of the church is fairly standard, but what’s behind it is not.


This is the apse with this wonderful carved wooden panel with ten figures adorning it (twelve if you count the two wooden ones at each end at the top).


A closer look reveals this ghastly looking version of Jesus who, uncharacteristically is shunted off to the side while lesser figures occupy centre stage.


Opposite Jesus on the other side, is this rendition of the Holy Trinity, but when I first looked at it, I thought it was an old guy in one of those euphemistically named ‘motorized mobility scooters’ that you increasingly see tearing up and down the sidewalks of North American cities.

Holy Trinity

One a more serious note, there is an important monument near the church entrance that is worth examining and learning the story of Father Stanley Rother. He was an American priest who came to Santiago Atitlan and during the civil war, defied the authorities and stood up for the Mayan people that were frequently the target of massacres during this time. For that, he paid with his life and has been recognized as a genuine martyr in every sense of the that word.

Father Rother's Heart, Lake Atitlan
Father Rother’s Heart

Although his body is buried in his native state of Oklahoma, Stanley Rother’s heart is buried here and that seems appropriate because he gave his heart and his life to the Tz’ujutil people. While I might not agree with religious proselytizing, no one can dispute the goodness of this man’s intentions to help the poor and downtrodden. In this world where Catholic priests are just as often seen as predators rather than protectors, it is comforting to know that that some truly follow the true teachings and example of Jesus, even if it costs them their lives.

Site of Rother’s Murder

Beside the church is the rectory and Tony points out the very spot where Rother was murdered by a government backed death squad in 1981. Sadly that was not the end of the violence. In 1990, eleven more people were killed in Santiago Atitlan by the army which had a base nearby. That event caused such an international uproar that the base was closed and since then life in this small place has returned to a semblance of normalcy.

Leaving the church area we are headed for the market, but not before Tony stops to talk to a tiny, wizened old lady. He explains that in her youth she was a famed beauty and you can certainly see it in her face. Alison posed for a photo with her. She also demonstrated how the Tz’ujutil women create a bonnet out of what appeared to be just a long cloth band, whipping it around head to create what she is wearing in this photo.

Alison with Mayan Beauty

Rounding the corner we saw her face again, although many years younger. She was the model for the image on the Guatemalan 24 centavo coin and the residents of Santiago Atitlan erected this monument in her honour. Who says you don’t meet famous people on Adventures Abroad tours?

25 Centavos Coin

In my previous post I wrote about the wonderful market at Chichicastenango and perhaps was expecting more of the same here. In some senses the market was similar, certainly in terms of the bright colours of the textiles. The patterns of the Tz’ujutil Mayans were completely different than the K’iche’, with flowers and birds being the predominant themes, rather than geometric patterns. Many of them would qualify as works of art and no two were alike.

Tz’ujutil Patterns

What was different at the Santiago Atitlan market was the absolute chaos of the place. The people were jammed in so tight that we literally had to squeeze our way through in many places. Here you can see Alison, at five foot four, towering over most of other market goers. Considering that some in our group came in at well above six feet, it was an unusual sight to say the least to see our stream of putative giants slicing through the Lilliputian crowd. Oh, and social distancing? Forget about it.

Alison in the Market

Flowers seemed especially important to the Tz’ujutil people as at least half of the people at the market were either buying or selling.

Flower Sellers & Buyers

I’m not a big fan of crowds so I was not disappointed to get out of this particular market and follow Tony through a series of narrow streets to find something that moves around from house to house in Santiago Atitlan.


Perhaps the ultimate in religious syncretism is the cult of Maximón or San Simon who is described in this National Geographic story as the ‘Liquor-Drinking, Chain-Smoking Saint’. Although, like the association of Judas with Mayan Catholicism, there are many versions of just who this guy is and how he came about, all agree that he constitutes the embodiment of a Mayan god or character with a Christian saint. He has both good and bad traits like most of the ‘trickster’ characters found throughout the world. In Santiago Atitlan he is a carved wooden figure that was allegedly created by shamans to protect the town, which after a bad start which required his head to be twisted around and his legs broken, has been working pretty well ever since. He must not have been on duty when Father Rother was murdered or during the 1990 massacre.

Anyway, Maximón belongs to the town and every year is moved to a different location in the charge of a different cofradia. Tony knows where he’s holed up this year and we enter a small courtyard where a number of people are standing around and these young boys looking ever so nonchalant.

Three Boys

This is a Mayan shaman leading some type of ceremony. Maximón is inside a small room which she is looking into as she intones.

Mayan Shaman Praying to Maximon at Lake Atitlan
Mayan Shaman Praying to Maximon

After paying the obligatory offering, i.e. cash, to Maximón’s handlers we are permitted inside, one by one, for a quick glimpse of the legendary figure himself. Look closely and you’ll see the bills underneath his tie. How do you say ‘racket’ in Tz’ujutil?


No matter what you might think of Maximón and his followers, this is fascinating stuff and one of the great reasons why travel is, for me, an absolute necessity, just like liquor and cigars are for him.

Maximon from the Side

The one thing I really did not like about Santiago Atitlan was the persistence of the trinket sellers in and around the main street leading up from the waterfront. They were very young and as annoying as the gadflies Hera would send to torment Zeus’s mistresses. They had every trick in the book, ultimately playing the guilt card which really pisses me off. The reason it stood out was that it was the only place in all of Central America that we ran into this type of ultra aggressive hucksterism.

Back on the boat we were headed to a much smaller town on the Lake Atitlan lakefront.

San Juan La Laguna

San Juan La Laguna, Lake Atitlan
San Juan La Laguna

About a twenty minute ride from Santiago Atitlan is the much smaller town of San Juan La Laguna which seems to consist of one main street leading up from the waterfront to the plaza where the church is found. Along the way are a great number of handicraft shops, coffee and chocolate emporiums and a number of attractive murals. It’s an interesting place that actually seemed to have more tourists walking about than Santiago Atitlan.

Pulling up to the dock I noted this hard working man and his relaxed looking dog.

A Man and His Dog

This is the main street. Looking at this photo now I don’t see any people wandering about, seeming to contradict what I just wrote about the number of tourists, but I assure you they are there, just hiding for some reason.

Main Street, San Juan La Laguna, Lake Atitlan
Main Street, San Juan La Laguna

A few examples of the murals you’ll find as you make your way up to the church.

Mayan Woman Mural

This one you look down at from above and some of them look back at you.

Looking Up Mural

The town is also noted for its pottery, which would definitely make for a good souvenir of the place.

Pottery for Sale

This wood collector emerged from the shadows of a narrow lane presumably to sell his wares in the town.

Wood Collector

After visiting the church we made our way back to the boat and headed for Panajachel. Nearing the town we saw these tree enormous buildings that were totally out of sync with everything else on or around Lake Atitlan. Of course there was a story behind them and as with many things in Guatemala, corruption was the theme.

Somoza Condos

Even though Lake Atitlan was supposed to be protected from developments of this kind, the former Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza, hoping to launder some of the money he had stolen from his people, bribed officials in Guatemala to let him build these three buildings that were supposed to be condos. They got built, but Somoza didn’t get a chance to sell the condos as he was assassinated in Paraguay after being ousted by the Sandanistas. Two of them have never been occupied  while the third apparently has a lot of squatters. And so goes life on Lake Atitlan.

This is an incredible place and I can only hope that the wheel of fortune favours it more in the future than it has in the recent past. I will long remember our magical day on this too, too beautiful lake.

Next we are off to Antigua which has long been on my bucket list of Spanish colonial cities. Hope to see you there.

Many thanks to Dale of The Maritime Explorer for taking us with him on this adventure.


Copan & the Stairway to Heaven

Venturing into Honduras, we explore once of the best Mayan sites in the world with Dale of The Maritime Explorer. 


Our journey with Victor Romagnoli through Central America on behalf of Adventures Abroad continues as we make our way into the fifth country on the itinerary, Honduras. Our destination is the legendary lost Mayan city of Copan deep in the jungle and far, far away from the troubled cities of Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula where gang violence is still rampant and tourists are wise to avoid. In order to get to Copan we need first to cross over into Guatemala from El Salvador where we have spent the last three days. There we got our first taste of Mayan ruins as the sites of San Andres and Tazumal. Frankly, before I signed up for this trip I was not even aware that there were Mayan ruins in El Salvador so I was not really disappointed that they paled in comparison to Chichen Itza and Tulum, the two Mayan sites I had visited in the past. Copan, however, is a different matter. It has long been famous for its stelae, the unique hieroglyphic staircase and the Rosalila monument so I am really psyched about this visit. Why not join us and see if our expectations are met?

Getting There

We had spent the night at the tiny mountain village of Concepción de Ataco surrounded by volcanoes and coffee farms. In the morning we made our way back through Santa Ana, El Salvador’s second largest city and then up to the border crossing at the Rio Anguiatú where things went smoothly and we were into Guatemala. There was an alternate route that would involve crossing directly into Honduras from El Salvador, but Victor made it clear that the less time spent on Honduran roads the better. The route we were taking would cross into Honduras from Guatemala only about twenty kilometres (14 miles) from Copan Ruinas the town just outside the ruins where we would be staying for two days. Arriving at the border crossing at El Florido we disembarked and walked across the border, stopping on the way for a group shot in both countries. Not sure what Victor is looking at.

Group Picture on Honduras Border

There was a bit of confusion at the entry point as apparently the woman in charge wanted a bribe, but Victor told her to shove it and after a little delay we got our Honduran passport stamps and got back on the bus for the short ride to Copas Ruinas.

Hotel Marina Copan

Hotel Marina Copan

Once again Victor outdid himself with the choice of hotel for our stay in Honduras. The Hotel Marina Copan is an oasis of wood, brick, tile and greenery that has large rooms and a swimming pool that many in our group took advantage of, as we had the rest of the day to relax and explore the town.

Hotel Marina Copan Swimming Pool

Copan Ruinas

Copan Ruinas Mural

The town of Copan Ruinas was developed around the tourists attracted by the nearby ruins and as such is a rarity in Honduras, a hot spot for foreigners. At least it was until the violence that plagues Honduras got so bad that the tourism industry has almost completely dried up. There was only one other group staying at the hotel and the streets of Copan Ruinas were deserted of tourists, but not of the locals who, despite the obvious downturn in business seemed quite cheerful and upbeat. Victor assured us that it was quite safe to walk around on our own and Alison and I did without feeling any qualms. It was interesting that we had become used to seeing armed guards everywhere in El Salvador and so their absence in Copan Ruinas added an extra level of relative safety.

This is a typical street in the small town. There are not a lot of cars, but lots of tuk tuks and motorcycles, reflecting the relative poverty of Honduras where the gross annual income is only $2330 USD, ahead of only Nicaragua and Haiti in all of Latin America and the Caribbean.

Copan Ruinas Street

We were hungry and after checking out a few places settled on Tipicos la Pintada which looked like a family operation serving typical Honduran food. A pupuseria is a place that sells pupusas which are the national dish of El Salvador, but widely popular in Guatemala and Honduras as well. They are essentially tortillas on steroids which are stuffed with anything you can name, but I have to confess that I much prefer the thinner tortilla which doesn’t overwhelm the ingredients with breadiness. So I won’t be ordering a pupusa.

Tipicos la Pintada, Copan Ruinas
Tipicos la Pintada

I will be ordering a Port Royal Export which is a Honduran lager in the Pilsener style that is typical of Central America and goes down well served ice cold.

Port Royal Export

The menu has Honduran style fajitas so Alison goes for chicken with the other Honduran made beer, Salva Vida which is the most popular in the country. Tell me that plate of food doesn’t look great.

Chicken Fajitas

I go for the mixed bag fajitas and they are delicious as well. There is enough food on this plate to satisfy even the hungriest of appetites and the good news is that these two meals cost only about $7USD. If you can tear yourself away from the fried chicken joints and try some of the restaurants serving food like this you will be healthier and wealthier and maybe even wiser.

Mixed Fajitas

After this big meal we wandered around town, spent some time sitting in the main plaza and found the only bottle of gin in town, a litre of Tanqueray covered in a layer of dust in an understocked liquor store across from the church. Time to get some tonic water and relax by the pool, tomorrow is going to be a big day.

A Little History

I always find that the more you can learn about an archaeological site before you visit, the more informative and interesting your visit will be. In the case of Copan, aside from boning up from a number of online sites I listened to the lecture on its history by Professor Edwin Barnhart in his series From Maya to Aztec: Ancient Mesomerica Revealed.

Barnhart was one of the archaeologists who was on hand for one of the greatest discoveries in modern archaeology – the tomb of  K’inich Yax K’uk Mo’ or Great Sun First Quetzal Macaw, the founder of classical Copan. In a nutshell this is what I learned from these various sources.

Human habitation of this area, which is actually a valley in the Honduran uplands at an elevation of 2300 feet (700 metres), dates as far back as 1500 B.C. with stone structures as old as 1000 B.C. However, not much is known about ancient Copan before 426 A.D. when K’inich Yax K’uk Mo’ arrived here from Tikal, either as conqueror or to reestablish a city and create a dynasty that lasted 400 years through sixteen kings. Now here’s the strange part that shows that history is never as clearcut as some text books would have us believe. Analysis of Kinich Yax K’uk Mo’s remains revealed that he was not a Mayan, but a much larger individual. Figurines which are believed to represent him show him dressed as a native of the great Mexican city of Teotihuacan, over a thousand miles away, have been found at Copan. We visited that site with Victor and Adventures Abroad in 2018 and in my opinion it is the most impressive in all of Mesoamerica as I wrote in this post.

It is now believed that a group of warriors from Teotihuacan first conquered the Mayan city of Tikal in 378 and from there send the expedition under K’inich Yax K’uk Mo’ to Copan a few generations later. The irony is that Teotihuacan collapsed almost overnight in about 550 when it was burned for reasons unknown, while Copan flourished for another four hundred years or so.

Analysis of the skeleton of the woman believed to be K’inich Yax K’uk Mo’s wife showed her to be a native of the Copan area so that the dynasty that followed was a mixture of both peoples and both Mayan and Teotihuacan architectural influences are found here. As noted in earlier posts, the Mayans were the only people in the Western Hemisphere to develop a system of writing and it was because of that we know so much about Copan. It is considered to have the finest collection of Mayan stelae anywhere with the most detailed and beautiful sculpture work adorning them. These along with the great hieroglyphic staircase that has the largest Mayan inscription in the world have left a written record of the kings of Copan and their deeds.

Add to this a huge number of temples, altars and tombs in a city forgotten in time for hundreds of years and you have the perfect magnet for real and armchair archeologists as well as a few lucky souls like us who will get to visit Copan today.

Practical Information

World Heritage Site

In 1980 Copan was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with this criterion:

              The design of the site, with its temples, plazas, terraces and other features, represent a type of architectural and sculptural complex among the most characteristic of the Classic Maya Civilization. The Maya site of Copan represents one of the most spectacular achievements of the Classic Maya Period because of the number, elaboration and magnitude of its architectural and sculptural monuments. The stelae and altars at the Plaza form one of the most beautiful sculpture ensembles in the region. In both the design and execution of monuments, the Maya bequeathed a unique example of their creative genius and advanced civilization at Copan.

The site is administered by the Honduran government and is open from 8:00 to 6:00. Admission is $15 USD for the grounds, $8 USD for the museum and a further $15 USD if you want to go into one of the tunnels dug into ruins. We are going to do the first two, but not the tunnels.

Entrance to Copan Ruins

We are here just before opening time and as you can see there’s nobody else around. Once inside we meet our guide for the day Juan Carlos Calderon, one of only four registered guides who will be working today I later learn from him.

Juan Carlos Calderon

The first stop is at this model of Copan and as you can see this is a huge complex with lots to explore.

Model of Copan

One thing I’ve learned about visiting archaeological sites in Mesoamerica is that they often double as great birding spots as well and this sign at the entrance to the lane that leads into the site confirms that.

Birds of Copan

Right off the bat we spotted this scarlet macaw, which is a good omen because these birds were sacred to the people of Copan and we will be seeing images of them at both the site and the museum.

Scarlet Macaw

It’s not just birds that frequent the site, but agoutis and squirrels as well.

Agouti & Squirrel, Copan
Agouti & Squirrel

Visiting the Site

Ok, enough dicking around let’s see some ruins!

Here is a map of Copan with the stelae marked by letters and/or numbers and the structures by names or numbers. We enter the Great Plaza from the right side.

Map of Copan

What follows is our trip around Copan in the order that Jose presented it to us starting with Structure 4 which is a truncated pyramid with stairs on all four sides in the middle of the large open area. It is believed to have had some astronomical significance, but nobody knows for sure why it was built.

Structure 4, Copan
Structure 4

Next Jose takes us to a series of stelae grouped around the plaza starting with this one erected by Uaxaclajuun Ub’aah K’awill better known as 18 Rabbit (probably because nobody could pronounce his real name). He was considered the greatest of the kings of Copan for the many additions he made to the city and because, like Ramses II in Egypt, he made sure everyone knew about his accomplishments by building many stelae in the city to himself. Each one tells a definitive story that could have been read by his subjects, often related to important events in the Mayan calendar.

Stela 4

18 Rabbit met an ignominious fate when he was captured and beheaded by the ruler of the tiny vassal city of Quiriguá apparently in league with the much larger city of Calakmul which was a sworn enemy of Tikal and Copan.

This is Stela B and it was also erected by 18 Rabbit. Showing him in immensely ornate attire, it has become a favourite of crypto-historians. See those curly things at the top of the sculpture?  Well according to the same people who believe that a stone sculpture in Palenque shows an ancient astronaut, those things on this stela can’t be anything but – wait for it – elephants! Since they are obviously elephants then everything we thought we knew about the Mayans is wrong and the guy portrayed here is really from Asia. Believe it or not the Mormons think this sculpture affirms a portion of the Book of Mormon that asserts that not only elephants, but horses and asses existed in the New World long before Europeans arrived. Elephants and horses I doubt, but there has never been any shortage of asses anywhere.

Stela B, Copan
Stela B

I prefer to think of it as one of the great works of Mayan art, nothing less and nothing more.

This is Stela C, the first of the seven 18 Rabbit had erected in the plaza and it still has traces of the paint that would have made these sculptures even more remarkable at the time they were first unveiled. This is a Janus like sculpture with one side facing east and portraying a young man and this one facing west showing him as an old man with a beard. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west after a long journey so the symbolism is pretty obvious.

Stela C, Copan
Stela C, West Side

We’ll take a break from stelae for a while and check out this giant turtle altar that faces Stela C and also has two heads, one looking young and this one the old head.

Copan Turtle Altar
Turtle Altar – Old Head Side

You could actually spend hours in the Great Plaza if you had someone like Juan Carlos to explain the significance of what you were seeing at each stela or altar. This photo also gives a persepective on just how large these stelae are.

Our Group Studying Stelae at Copan

This is enigmatic Altar A which Juan Carlos explains is a turtle meant to represent the world, a theme quite common in lots of parts of the world, but others think it is a flying saucer. There are no end of nuts in this world.

Juan Carlos Calderon and the World

Let’s look at another altar that is among the latest works at Copan. It depicts Kukulcan the feathered serpent god who plays a prominent role in Mayan theology and is one of a series of three dedicated to him.

Altar G, Copan
Altar G 3

As we conclude our tour of the stelae and altars of the Grand Plaza and head toward the major structures I look back and realize just how deserted Copan really is.

Grand Plaza

Juan Carlos and Victor then lead us to one of the most important buildings in Copan, the ball court. We first saw one on this trip at Tazumal and I explained the significance of the ball game to the Mayans, so I won’t repeat it here. This is the third and final version of the Copan ball court which was dedicated in 738. It is one if the largest in the Mayan world, reflecting the status of the city.

Ball Court, Copan
Copan Ball Court

Where other ball courts usually have rings through which the ball would need to go through in order to score, here the markers are in the shape of macaw heads.

Macaw Head for Scoring

Near the ball court is this macaw representation, the original of which we will see in the museum.

Macaw Representation

If the only things at Copan were the beautiful stelae, altars and ball court it would be considered a major Mayan site, but we are only now getting to the temples for which are equally famous. This is the view of the north side of the acropolis with some huge ceiba (kapok) trees growing right out of it in and looking like something right out of an Indiana Jones movie.

Temple of the Inscriptions, Copan
North Side of the Acropolis

Directly to the left of this is Temple 26 and the Hieroglyphic Stairway which has been covered to protect it from the elements. Let’s look inside.

Hieroglyphic Staircase Covering

This is Stela M representing K’ak Yipyaj Chan K’awiil aka Smoke Shell, the Copan ruler who completed work on the hieroglyphic stairway in 755. He is dressed in the uniform of a ball player as are a number of the 18 Rabbit and other stelae figures at Copan.

Stela M – K’ak Yipyaj Chan K’awiil

And here is the hieroglyphic stairway, one of the wonders of the Mayan world.  It is a 10 metre (33 foot) wide staircase with sixty-two steps each composed of a series of stone blocks which collectively form the largest single Mayan hieroglyphic inscription ever found – 1,250 blocks with over 2,000 hieroglyphs. Together they tell the story of the Copan dynasty, but only the first fifteen steps are in the right place. The rest had fallen apart when it was reconstructed by archaeologists in the early 20th century, but at that time the Mayan hieroglyphs had not been deciphered so they just put each stone wherever they felt it would fit. The result is that the stairway is mostly one giant jigsaw puzzle that will takes decades to properly put together.

BTW if you are wondering why I titled this post Copan & the Stairway to Heaven, it’s not because Led Zeppelin ever had anything to do with it, but because the Greek word ‘hiero’ means sacred. I figured any stairway covered with sacred hieroglyphs was metaphorically leading to a higher place.

Hieroglyphic Stairway

The temple on which the stairway is built was first constructed very early on in Copan and then subsequently covered over with larger and larger temples for the next four hundred years in seven different stages. It contained the tombs of a number of, as yet, unidentified persons including a woman who was buried with three heads of decapitated men and a man who was buried with a child that had been sacrificed.

Now it was time to climb to the top of the acropolis via a rocky path to the right side where we passed this stone skull along the way. This was to be the first of many precarious climbs to come over the ten days or so.

Skull Stone

Once at the top you get a great view of the ball court below and another opportunity to observe that we have Copan almost entirely to ourselves.

Ball Court from the Copan Acropolis

Here’s a shot of Alison on the highest spot in Copan. About half the group ascended this high, while others opted for the relative safety of the main trail through the acropolis.

On Copan Acropolis
Alison on the Acropolis of Copan

Although not much remains of the temple that stood at this end of the acropolis there are some very interesting things including this giant head often referred to as The Old Man of Copan. More correctly, this is a pauahtun named for the head dress he is wearing which is called a pauah. This is believed to be one of four that would have been placed just under the roof of the temple representing the four Bacabs who the Mayans believed held up the sky. It’s actually pretty amazing and unlike anything I’d seen before at any Mesoamerican site.

The Old Man of Copan

Next we walked to an overlook of the Patio of the Jaguars which has some really interesting things to see.

Patio of the Jaguars, Copan
Patio of the Jaguars

However, getting down there is easier said than done. One of the great mysteries to me is why the Mayans who are normally quite short built steps that even Wilt Chamberlain would have found daunting? These are the steps leading down to the Patio of the Jaguars.

Clambering Down

Once inside the patio there are a number of protected monuments including this scary looking guy who I believe is the Sun God, K’inich Ahau.

Sun God K’inich Ahau

Now given their bloody sacrifices, you don’t usually associate the ancient Mayans with a sense of humour, but you have to see this next sculpture to believe it. This is Dancing Jaguar and boy does he have moves! The holes in his arms once held obsidian discs. I will refrain from making any comments on the world’s first disco dancer.

 Dancing Jaguar of Copan
Dancing Jaguar

Something was nagging at my mind about this guy – he somehow seemed familiar. Then it hit me – Snagglepuss, the pink predecessor to the pink panther who loved to dance and was also known for his moves, including exit stage left.


Heavens to Murgetroyd, what will Copan come up with next?

How about arguably the most famous burial pyramid in the New World? Unlike the Egyptians, only a few of the Mayan pyramids were actually designed as tombs; most were purely temples. This is Temple 16 at Copan which is the culmination of a five stage structure that was started by K’inich Yax Ku’k Mo’ and finished two hundred years later by 18 Rabbit. Here in 1995, underneath the oldest structure that lies deep within this pyramid were found the remains of K’inich Yax K’uk Mo’. Earlier excavations had discovered the remains of his wife in a tomb that encased his and above that an amazing temple called the Rosalila that covered them both. A complete life-size copy of the Rosalila has been built in the museum and we will see that later. Just remember that the real thing is beneath these stones.

Temple 16

Here is a row of six skulls over the entrance to the tunnel at Temple 16 that leads to Rosalila, some of them looking more simian than human.

Skulls on a Wall

We are almost finished our visit to the ruins of Copan with only a few more sites of importance. These are the royal residences which are behind the acropolis. Even at its height Copan had at most 9,000 people living in or close to the ceremonial centre with a population of around 20,000 in the Copan valley. The people who frequented the areas we visited today were the 1%, except on ceremonial days when thousands would flock to the temples to observe the rituals.

Royal Residences

The last building of note is Structure 11 which is believed to have been the royal residence of Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat, the 16th and last known ruler of Copan.

Structure 11

So we have come full circle from the first to the last rulers of Copan in the best documented line of succession in the Mayan world.

Nobody can say for sure why Copan declined and was completely abandoned, but it was a slow process that took over four hundred years. There was no destruction by foreign invaders or civil tumult that resulted in the cataclysmic ends of cities as great as Teotihuacan. Almost certainly it was the gradual environmental degradation brought on by deforestation and soil exhaustion through over cultivation, but that’s still a theory and not an historical fact. There is a lesson to be learned from Copan, but I’m pretty damned sure nobody in authority is interested in learning it, yet alone heeding it.

The Sculpture Museum at Copan

Now, if your not too tired let’s finish our visit by going to the museum, because it’s something you really don’t want to miss.

The museum was opened in 1996 to house the most endangered of the stelae and altars as well as thousands of artifacts from Copan, found both outside and inside of the temples and tombs. The most ambitious project was the full size recreation of the Rosalila monument. That would require a huge amount of interior space, but there was a hitch. Since Copan was a World Heritage Site nothing could be built that would in any way detract or interfere with that status i.e. no obvious large building. The solution was to build the museum inside a natural hill so that from the outside, you barely know it is there and that has worked marvellously.

This is the entrance, a symbolic serpent’s mouth which the Mayan’s believed would take you to the netherworld.

Juan Enters the Museum at Copan
Juan Enters the Museum

That illusion continues once inside as you wend your way through the serpent’s body.

Inside the Serpent Tunnel

And then you come out into a massive space, open at the top and face to face with the Rosalila monument. Seldom in my life can I remember a more dramatic entrance to any museum or gallery. Rosalila is not a person’s name, but a reference to the rose/lilac colour of the exterior of this monument, the original of which lies deep within Temple 16 which we were standing beside not twenty minutes ago.

Rosalila, Copan

Can you imagine the astonishment of the first archaeologists who, tunnelling into Temple 16, suddenly came upon this magnificent work of art? Somehow the builders of this museum have almost managed to recreate that feeling for anyone entering the museum for the first time.

The Front of Rosalila

The museum has two floors that allow you to see Rosalila from all sides and angles and it will hold your attention, believe me. You will for sure want to get your picture taken with Rosalila.

With Rosalila in Copan
At the Sculpture Museum with Rosalila

But, there is much more to see in this great museum and I have included only a few of the best works starting with the original Altar Q which I couldn’t get a good picture of so I’ve borrowed this one from Felix Kupprat.

Altar Q

This altar is the equivalent of the Rosetta Stone for Copan. It was commissioned by the last dynastic ruler of Copan, Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat in 776 and depicts all sixteen of the Copan rulers with their names in hieroglyphs identifying each one. It was this one work that allowed archaeologists to learn the chronology of Copan and to use the hieroglyphs from this altar to help decode their meaning and develop an understanding of ancient Mayan writing. This is an incredibly important artifact.

This is the original of the macaw that we saw at the ball court.

Macaw Original

This is Camazotz the killer bat that decapitated one of the sacred twins in the Mayan creation book Popol Vuh and was scaring the bejesus out of people long before Dracula.

Camazotz – The Killer Bat

This is a sample of just a few of the many sculptured heads found in the museum and that once adorned the exterior of buildings in Copan, each representing what would have been an identifiable person, god or other entity, no different than would you would have found in ancient Greece or Rome.

Copan Heads
Mayan Heads

I found this head with the ghastly looking bird head dress particularly interesting because it looks more like something you would see on a temple in Bali than in Honduras.

Water Bird Head Dress

I could go on and on, but this post needs to end at some point. I hope I have convinced you that Copan is a must-visit for anyone with an interest in Mayan civilization or archaeology in general.

Copan Museum Macaw
In the Copan Museum

Next we are off to Guatemala starting with a visit to the highlands and the amazing market of Chichicastenango. Hope to see you there.


Tazumal & the Ruta de las Flores – El Salvador Tour

Continuing on with our Central America and El Salvador tour  series with Dale of the Maritime Explorer, we are excited to explore the Ruta de las Flores, Santa Ana and Tazumal.

This is my third and final post on the tiny country of El Salvador which Alison and I visited with Victor Romagnoli on his definitive trip through Central America for Adventures Abroad in February, 2020. In the first post I gave my general impressions of El Salvador and why, once again, I was surprised to find that a country’s negative reputation isn’t necessarily deserved once you actually visit the place. In the second post we left the city of San Salvador and visited an extinct volcano, our first Mayan ruins and tie-dyed at one of only two organic indigo farms in the world. It was a very interesting day to say the least. Today we head for the Mayan ruins of Tazumal by way of Santa Ana, the country’s second largest city and then follow the Ruta de las Flores through a number of towns to our eventual destination in the mountain town of Concepción de Ataco. It promises to be another day of eye-opening firsts in this seldom visited part of the world. Why not join us?

Santa Ana

Welcome to Santa Ana

We checked out of the Barcelo San Salvador and headed north on the Pan-American Highway towards El Salvador’s second largest city, Santa Ana only 64 kms. (40 miles) away. The traffic was light, the road good and by 10:00 am we were driving past this roundabout with the Santa Ana welcome sign and headed for the historic centre of the city. Now comparing Santa Ana to San Salvador would be like comparing the proverbial apples to oranges. At around 250,000 residents it’s a fraction of the size of the capital and feels more like an overgrown town than a big city.

We got off the bus at the Parque Libertad which is flanked on three sides by the main cathedral, the Teatro de Santa Ana and the municipal building in the photo below with its distinctive ionic columns.

Civic Building, Santa Ana
Municipal Building

I was quite surprised at how many people were out just enjoying themselves in the plaza as it was a weekday, but it added to the general feeling of bonhomie that seemed to pervade the plaza. And this in spite of the armed security guards and policemen that are ever present in El Salvadorean cities.

This is the Teatro de Santa Ana with a lovely neo-Baroque facade that dates from 1910 when Santa Ana was the wealthiest city in the country and the home of El Salvador’s coffee barons.

Teatro de Santa Ana

For some reason I did not take a picture of the fine looking Santa Ana cathedral, but it’s definitely worth seeing so here’s a photo from Wikipedia taken by Yessica Guerra.

Santa Ana Cathedral

So all around the Parque Libertad we have a neo-classical city hall, a Baroque theatre and a Gothic revival cathedral. My mind says this mishmash of styles should not work, but in fact it does. The main plaza of Santa Ana was one of the most pleasant we visited in all of Central America.

I don’t know if every day is like this in Santa Ana or if this was a market day because the streets around the Parque Libertad were packed with shoppers and as is usual, each street seemed to specialize in one type of item, in this case clothing. Since these are not tourist markets, the prices were ridiculously low. The quality might not be the best, but when you can get a pair of decent jeans for less than $10.00, who cares?

Clothes for Sale, Santa Ana

Santa Ana has a reputation for being the safest city in El Salvador, or at least that’s what the internet would have you believe. However, the feeling of not feeling unsafe if that makes any sense, was definitely in the air as Alison and I explored some of the streets and lanes running off the Parque Libertad.

We even came across a Bank of Nova Scotia branch where we were able to get direct access to our accounts back home and get some US dollars before heading to Honduras and Guatemala. I don’t know if we’ll need them or not, but better to have them than not in my experience.

Scotiabank in Santa Ana


Not far from Santa Ana are the ruins of the Mayan city of Tazumal which are literally surrounded by the present day city of Chalchuapa, a Nahuatl word meaning ‘river of jade’. Our bus drives down a narrow street with vendors on one side and open air restaurants on the other until it can go no further. How he is going to turn around I have no idea, but we get out and walk the short distance to the entrance.

Tazumal, like San Andres which we visited yesterday, had two distinct growth periods. One before the eruption of Ilopango and one after with a significant gap in between. The earliest settlement here dates as far back as 1000 B.C. and apparently had a definite Olmec influence, based upon a carving found on a boulder at the site. The period immediately preceding the Ilopango eruption was the city’s heyday and there were structures much larger and over an area much greater than what you see today. Although construction resumed in the 5th century and what we will visit today dates from that time, the city never regained its former prominence. By 1200 Tazumal was abandoned.

The visit to Tazumal starts with a walk through a small museum where the most interesting item is this recreation of a Mayan cacique complete with jade and feather ornamentation. Shakespeare is wrongly attributed to have written “Vanity, thy name is woman.”, but he might have written it about this guy.

Mayan Cacique

Tazumal is essentially one large plaza dominated by a pyramid that is much larger than that at Santa Ana and although you can’t climb it, there is a path to follow around its base.

Pyramid at Tazumal
Tazumal Pyramid

This is the view from the back which looks amazingly like a Babylonian ziggurat.

Ziggurat of Tazumal
Tazumal Ziggurat?

We also come across the first of the many ball courts we will see on this trip. One of the most fascinating things about pre-Columbian Mayan culture was the obsession with ‘the ball game’. A Mayan wife would never say to her husband, “Honey, it’s only a game.”, because to the Mayans it was much, much more. The playing of the game was not a sport as we know it, but a ritual which could actually see the losers executed. Talk about ‘sudden death overtime’! Every major Mayan city had at least one of these ball courts and they always had a viewing area which in the case of Tazumal would have been on the tiers of the pyramid beside the court.

Whenever Alison says I take the results of a football or hockey game too seriously, I think of these Mayan ball courts and wonder if maybe the Leafs should have been shot for blowing that last series with the Bruins.

Ball Court of Tazumal
Tazumal Ball Court

After our visit to Tazumal, Victor gives us time for lunch on our own and while most people in the group look for the fried chicken places that abound in Central America, I look for where the locals are eating. Don’t get me wrong, the locals love the fried chicken places, but there are other choices as well, usually involving big pots of something or other. As long as it’s been cooked you can be pretty sure it’s not going to give you Montezuma’s revenge.

This afternoon it’s fried yucca with chicharonnes. Washed down with an El Salvador Pilsener it’s absolutely delicious and way cheaper than the fried chicken joints. Alison loves it too and how here hair turned blue, I have no idea.

Fried Yucca with Chicharonnes, Tazumal
Fried Yucca with Chicharonnes

Back on the bus which the driver has somehow miraculously extricated from this narrow lane without running anyone over we are headed for the Ruta de las Flores which is a mountainous road that connects a number of interesting villages and as you can guess by the name, is festooned with flowers. It’s also the centre of El Salvadorean coffee production.


This small city was a pre-Hispanic community of the Pipil Indigenous people who inhabited El Salvador after the Mayans and whose presence is still very apparent in the people today.

Indigenous Women at the Nahuizalco Market

We stopped at the local market and Victor bought a bunch of bananas which are quite different from those that make their way to North American food stores. They are thicker and shorter, but taste just like bananas.

Nahuizalco Banana

Across the street from the market there is a small plaza where you’ll find this monument to Oscar Romero who is literally a modern day saint and venerated everywhere in El Salvador and much of Latin America. He was an outspoken archbishop of San Salvador who took the side of the poor and downtrodden, something the Catholic church was not particularly known for at the time. For his efforts on their behalf he was assassinated by a right wing death squad in 1980. He was canonized by Pope Francis in 2018 and almost every city and town we visited in El Salvador has some kind of monument to him.

Oscar Romero

On the other side of the plaza there was a temporary monument inspired by another saint. Valentine’s Day was fast approaching. Brian Palardy took this picture of us in the heart of Nahuizalco, just as he had done three year’s earlier when we shared the day with he and his wife Lynn on an Adventures Abroad trip in Kenya. We reciprocated.

In the Heart of Nahuizalco


This place is the coffee capital of El Salvador and we walked up to a coffee plantation that had a small cafe amid a beautiful garden, but I left the camera on the bus so you’ll have to take my word for it. While most of the women had one version of a coffee drink or another, most of the men settled for beer, but I did buy a pound of their best coffee and have enjoyed it at home in the morning. For me any time after noon is too late for coffee, but not too early for beer.

This is our local guide Dio standing before a huge ceibo tree in Salcoatitán that is the source of a legend. According to Atlas Obscura one of my favourite sources for arcane lore, if you hug the tree and thank it in Nahuatl you will receive a favourable gift. And here I thought tree huggers were wasting their time.

Dio & the Ceiba Tree

Actually this tree, also known as a kapok in other parts of the world, is over 300 years old and has been a landmark for centuries. Near the tree there is this mosaic of the Mayan demi-god Quetzalcoatl, portrayed as the Feathered Serpent.

Quetzalcoatl Mosaic

Across the street I couldn’t help but notice this young boy carrying a large pottery jug and thought that, but for the clothing, this could be a scene from a thousand or more years ago on this very spot.

Boy with Pot, Salcoatitan
Boy with Pottery Jug


Apaneca Sign

From Salcoatitán the road rises steadily to the town of Apaneca which is 1450 metres (4757 feet) above sea level, the second highest in El Salvador. It was also probably the prettiest town we visited in that country with cobble stone streets, colourful murals and coffee plantations on the hills surrounding the town.

Apaneca Cobblestone Street
Casa de la Cultura
Bright House

Overlooking the town are three crosses at the top of a coffee plantation which in this part of El Salvador are laid out in a distinct latticework pattern.

Crosses & Coffee

Ever wonder where those clothes and shoes you drop off at donation bins everywhere in North America actually end up? Only about one quarter of donated goods actually gets resold in thrift shops in Canada or United States. Much of what doesn’t sell is sold in bulk to third world countries where it ends up in places like this, advertised as ‘ropas Americana’. I particularly noticed a lot of them in Nicaragua where in 2017, Canada exported almost $8 million worth. It is one of the rare win-win situations with Canadian charities getting money from Canadians who throw out perfectly good clothing on a fashion whim and people in countries like El Salvador able to get decent clothing at a price they can afford. However, the real irony is that most of these clothes were made in third world countries in the first place and are simple being repatriated.

Clothes for Sale

While the clothing store looks well run, I couldn’t say the same for the shoe salesman. Do you have that in a size 9?

Shoes for Sale

Apaneca has one of the nicest churches we came across in Central America. Iglesia San Andrés was originally built in 1798, but destroyed in the 2001 earthquake. It has been completely rebuilt and is one of the most photographed in the country.

Iglesia San Andres

It’s been a long jam packed day and our last stop is the mountain town of Concepción de Ataco and the lovely boutique hotel Misión de Angeles where we will spend the night and share a great meal.

This is the view from Room M-10. Sitting on the balcony with a g&t in hand, I am amazed to think back on the day and realize how much I have come to like El Salvador in such a short period of time and how completely different it is from what I anticipated. Thank you Adventures Abroad for once again opening my eyes to the unexpected.

View From Room M-10

Tomorrow we cross two borders to get to one of the places I have wanted to see for decades – the Mayan city of Copan in Honduras. Hope to see you there.

Many thanks again to Dale of the Maritime Explorer for his wonderful insights on our tours. Always appreciated and we can’t wait to follow along with his next publication.


El Salvador – Volcanos, Ruins & An Indigo Farm

Let’s get to know El Salvador a little better with the help of traveller Dale of the Maritime Explorer as he takes on our Central America tour.


Well, here we are in El Salvador, one of the last countries I ever expected to visit, but this is Victor Romagnoli’s Central American odyssey on behalf of Adventures Abroad and you can’t visit every country in the region without including this tiny nation. Actually, in my last post I described how El Salvador surprised me with the urbanity of its capital San Salvador and how quickly any sense of unease was dissipated by just walking around a bit. Today we are going to sample a little of what El Salvador has to offer starting with a visit to a volcano, our first Mayan ruin (finally!) and then a return to hippiedom with some tie-dyeing at an indigo farm. Remember, Adventures Abroad specializes in trips for over 50’s and you’d have to be that old to remember the tie-dyeing craze, but even if you aren’t, join us for this fun day in one of the world’s least visited countries.

El Boqueron

San Salvador Volcano

Visible from almost everywhere in San Salvador is a huge mountain to the northwest that bears the same name as the city. San Salvador is what is known as a stratovolcano which means that it it was built up by a series of eruptions, often over many millennia. They are especially bad news when they go postal as evidenced by some of the most famous ones – Krakatoa, Vesuvius and Mount St. Helens to name a few. This volcano has two craters, one of which is El Boquerón, or in english, ‘big mouth’ and that’s our first destination today.

In my last post I noted that our bus was considerably smaller than the one we had in Nicaragua and the reason becomes apparent on our way up to El Boquerón. The road is extremely narrow with a number of hair pin turns that even this smaller bus navigates with difficulty. It’a very pleasant drive through a tropical forest passing local transportation along the way like this one. No need to worry if the air conditioning is working or not.

El Salvador Bus

After a long climb up a dead end road we get to the parking lot where there a just a few other cars. Our local guide Dio buys our entry fees, USD $1.00 per person and we set out on the path to the rim of the crater which is the big attraction although I’ll never downplay the pleasure of a walk through a tropical forest anytime, anywhere.

El Boqueron Sign

It’s a fairly steep path and by the time we reach the top I’m pretty winded, but it’s definitely worth the short hike.

El Boqueron Trail
On the Trail to El Boqueron

This is an aerial view of El Boquerón to give you a better idea of what you are looking down at from the several viewing platforms.

El Boqueron Aerial View

This is what it looks like from the crater’s edge.

El Boqueron Crater

The tiny crater within a crater is boqueroncito which only appeared in 1917. Believe it or not, before that this was a crater lake where San Salvadoreans used to go boating. The birth of boqueroncito literally evaporated the lake in a matter of days.

Boating on El Boqueron Lake

People do hike down into the crater and you can see a number of places where there are paths, but thankfully we are contenting ourselves with just looking from the top.

Back on the bus we grind our way down the hill in low gear until getting back on the main highway heading for our first set of Mayan ruins at San Andres.

San Andres

I have been fascinated by the Mayan culture since I first read about the sacrifice of virgins at Chichen Itza by throwing them into the natural wells called cenotes to appease the rain god, Chaac. That was considered suitable material for our grade five reader at the time. Turns out that further study on the bones found at the bottom of these cenotes reveals they were in fact boys and young men and not girls as previously believed. Chaac was a blood thirsty bastard who even demanded that some of these children as young as three, be flayed alive before being tossed away like human detritus. At least that’s what the Mayans believed – ain’t religion wonderful?

Leaving aside their more sanguine traits, the Mayans were an incredibly advanced culture in mathematics, astronomy, architecture and language. They were only people in the Western Hemisphere to develop a written language. Although most often associated with the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico the Mayans in fact had major cities in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize and at the very southern extent of their empire, El Salvador.

Map of the Mayan Civilization

Although by the time the Spanish arrived in the late 15th century the great Mayan cities had all been abandoned, the Mayans themselves still remain to this day, but not in El Salvador. The Indigenous people here at the time of the conquest were Pipils who spoke a Nahuatl language and descended from the Toltec/Aztec peoples of central Mexico. One of the great archaeological mysteries which is still hotly debated today is why the Mayan civilization collapsed. How did they go from being urbanites living in cities of up to 200,000 people in the case of Tikal to a bunch of disorganized feuding tribes that fought the Spanish guns, dogs and horses with obsidian spears? We won’t find the answer on this tour, but it’s going to be a lot of fun looking, starting with the small site of San Andres, just north of San Salvador.

San Andres was first settled almost 3,000 years ago, but was abandoned in the fifth century A.D. due to the explosion of nearby Ilopango an event so cataclysmic that it is now thought to have been responsible for a world wide cooling that took place in 535 and 536. What you see today dates from the period named the Late Classic – 600-900 A.D. The city had direct ties with Copan in modern day Honduras which we will visit later on this trip. It is quite unusual in that many of its structures are made from adobe bricks and not cut stone like almost all other Mayan ruins. It’s not a large site, but given that it’s our first, I’m pretty excited.

Here is a map of San Andres. You enter from the south side and basically explore all the structures within the Acropolis area. Structure 5, La Campana is now completely overgrown and the area between it and the Acropolis is fenced off. There is also a small, but pretty good museum on site which features artifacts from San Andres and from a later period when there was an indigo farm here.

Map of San Andres

This is an aerial view of San Andres and as you can see, unlike many of the sites we will be visiting later on in this trip, the major structures are all fenced off.

Aerial View of San Andres

The closest you can get to Structure 1, which is the largest one in the picture above, is to stand in front as Alison an I are doing in the photo taken by Victor.

At San Andres

By Mayan standards, at less then 50 feet (15 metres) this is a pretty puny pyramid, but it’s a start.

This photo shows some of the adobe brickwork that makes up most of the building material at San Andres

Adobe not Stone

This is Structure 7 which sits outside the Acropolis complex and is actually the first one you come across at San Andres.

Structure 7, San Andres
Structure 7

This photo which at first looks like not much of anything, was taken standing on the northern edge of the Acropolis overlooking what would have been the Grand Plaza with La Campana being that mound on the far right. At one time this area was totally cleared out, but too many looters were coming to the site doing unauthorized digs so it was allowed to regrow, It’s a good illustration of just how fast and completely the tropical forest can overrun and hide even something as large as La Campana.

Campana on the Right

Ok, so were weren’t exactly bowled over by San Andres, but it has definitely whetted our appetites for more starting with Tazumal tomorrow. Originally Victor had planned to take us to the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Joya de Ceren which is nearby and preserves a small Mayan village that was completely engulfed by volcanic ash during an eruption in the 7th century. Somewhat ambitiously dubbed “The Pompeii of the America”, it was recently closed for safety upgrades and scheduled to reopen in May of this year, but with Covid-19, who knows?

Hacienda Los Nacimientos – Visit to a Working Indigo Farm

What exactly is indigo? Well actually a lot of things starting with one of the seven colours on the spectrum, landing between blue and violet. The colour was actually named for the dye produced from a variety of plants of the indigo family. What is this dye used for – think no further than blue jeans and you’ll know why for a long time in history indigo production was one of the most important industries almost all around the world. The oldest indigo dyed cloth discovered in Peru, dates back over 6,000 years and the Mayans certainly used it long before the Spanish arrived. Tiny El Salvador turned out to be a great place to grow indigo and by the 18th century it was the country’s most important crop, often called ‘blue gold’. I noted that there was an historical indigo farm and production facility at San Andres, one of hundreds in the nation.

But then along comes Adolph von Baeyer who invents a synthetic dye in the late 19th century and poof, the entire industry disappears almost overnight.

Fast forward another century or so and a revived interest in ‘natural’ products breathes life back into indigo dyes from actual plants and El Salvador is once again seeing a growth in this once dormant method of production. So we are headed to one of these new indigo farms right now; not just any indigo farm, but one of only two in the world that is apparently truly ‘organic’. Hacienda Los Nacimientos grows a number of organic crops including indigo plants and creates the dye on site using traditional methods that are similar to what they were doing at San Andres centuries ago. The farm also offers the chance to make your own creations using their own dyes. It’s not that easy to get to, being well off the main north/south route from San Salvador to Honduras. We go from pavement to gravel to a country lane that would be impossible for two vehicles to pass each other in all but a few spots. In places sugar cane as tall as the bus impedes the view, but mostly it’s a very pleasant rural countryside with the mountains all around in the distance. For a country as densely populated as El Salvador this place is virtually empty.

The farm is large, but the area where the tourism takes place is a mostly wooded and shady arbor of hardwood trees. Our guide explains that we will start out with a walk to the indigo processing area along this path.

Heading for the Indigo Obraje, Hacienda los Nacimientos indigo farm

Along the way Alison stops to take a picture of what I thought the guide described as an empire flower, but I must have heard him wrong because I can’t find anything about such a flower/tree/shrub anywhere. Whatever it’s called, it’s a nice specimen.

Alison Photographing Empire Tree, Indigo Farm
Alison Photographing Empire Tree

We arrive at the indigo production facility, technically an obraje and nothing’s happening. Obrajes were first developed in Puebla, Mexico to process wool from start to finish and the name has stuck for any type of facility that produces some type of finished product – ‘workshop’ would be a good sysnonym.

Indigo Obraje, Hacienda Los Nacimientos Indigo Farm
Indigo Obraje

Our guide explains the process that we would have seen had we been here in the season when the indigo plants were harvested. We saw a few fields of them on the way in and you would never know that these scraggly looking plants we saw today will produce beautiful purplish blue flowers (that would be indigo you twit) in a few months.

Walking back by a different route we passed through a cashew grove. I had no idea that there was such a thing as cashew fruit or a cashew apple as the thing Alison is holding is called. It is quite tasty and very juicy which explains why it so perishable. You eat it at the tree or not at all in most cases.

Cashew Fruit, Indigo Farm
Cashew Apple

Now if this was a real apple there would be seeds inside, I mean after all, everyone knows that seeds or nuts are found inside the fruit, right? Not in the case of the cashew where the nut grows outside the fruit in something that almost looks vaguely obscene.

Cashew Apples with Their Nuts
Indigo farm cashew nuts
Cashew Nuts

Once the fruits fall away you are left with these little suckers which encase the actual nut that we eat in a coating of anacardic acid, the same thing found in poison ivy. That’s why you can never buy cashews in the shell. They need to be removed and cleansed before they are edible.

Ok, now that you know everything there is to know about cashews let’s finally get to the tie-dyeing.

Not being known for my artistic prowess, I’ve never tie-dyed in my life and don’t intend to break that record today. I’ll act as photo-journalist instead recording every detail of this event that I’m told is a first for Adventures Abroad. Essentially tie-dyeing is nothing more than creating cool looking patterns on cloth by exposing some parts of the cloth to dye and keeping others away from it. Today my subjects will be working with just indigo so all the patterns will be indigo & white.

The first part involves some intricate folding – a prior knowledge of origami will be a definite asset. Inside the folds you wrap various objects to get different results. Here Alison is using small glass oval beads which is quite time consuming and would involve patience I don’t possess.

Alison Folding at the Indigo Farm
Alison Folding

Then you come to the tieing part of tie-dyeing as Victor demonstrates here.

Victor Tieing Up, Indigo Farm
Victor Tieing Up

A little help from an expert is never a bad thing. I didn’t realize that Mike Myers retired and moved to El Salvador.

Ready to Dye

Next is the part that kids would love. You need to dunk your cloth in the indigo dye three separate times. It’s very messy and you probably should be wearing jeans. Alison and Sherrie actually seem to be enjoying this.

Sherrie & Alison Dyeing

Lastly the things are all hung up to dry will we all head for lunch.

Hung Out to Dry, Indigo Farm
Hung Out to Dry

While my subjects have been toiling away, so has the indigo farm chef preparing a great al fresco mixed grill.

Preparing Lunch

And here it is.

Indigo farm lunch
Lunch at the Indigo Farm

Before the group reassembles at the indigo farm tie-dye clothes line, some of us take a brief detour to see a Pacific Screech Owl, a species found only in Central America and parts of Mexico. He’s just as curious about us as we are of him.

Pacific Screech Owl, Indigo Farm
Pacific Screech Owl

Back at the farm the artisans line up with their creations. Actually pretty damn impressive.

Indigo Farm Artisans

Here is Alison’s.

Finished Product

It’s time to leave the indigo farm and head back to San Salvador using a different route that takes us through the town of San Martin.

San Martin

Another great day of varied adventures, but now it’s time to head for Churchill’s for another one of their great martinis. Tomorrow we explore more of the country as we leave San Salvador and discover the Ruta de la Flores and the Mayan city of Tazumal. Hope to see you on board.

Many thanks again to Dale of The Maritime Explorer for his wonderful insights. Can’t wait to read about how you liked the next part of our tour.


Unexpected El Salvador

Have you been anywhere recently that has surprised you? For Dale of The Maritime Explorer, El Salvador was this place. Read why.

This is my first post on El Salvador, the fourth country on Victor Romagnoli’s guided tour of all the Central American countries for Canadian travel company Adventures Abroad. I am writing this from home in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic and really have no idea how or when things will return to a semblance of normalcy. In the meantime travellers who have not been stranded abroad have plenty of time on their hands as they practice social distancing and are for the most part prisoners in their homes and apartments. I considered just forgetting about writing up the rest of this amazing trip, but that would be defeatist and non-productive. The world is not going to end and eventually people will start traveling again and maybe in some small way my posts will contribute to that. Even if most people aren’t interested in going to El Salvador it helps to have some insight from someone who has actually been there.

El Salvador License Plate
License Plate

Let’s face it – El Salvador has a terrible reputation. Of all the Central American countries it probably has had the longest periods of repressive regimes and domination of all aspects of political and economic life by an oligarchy of fourteen families that continues to this day, although the fourteen has now been winnowed down to eight pre-eminent groups. But that’s not what’s behind El Salvador’s reputation today. It’s something that started in United States and was actually exported to El Salvador from the streets of east L.A. I’m referring of course to the notorious El Salvadorean street gangs MS-13 and MS-18 which President Trump has vilified in his anti-immigrant rants. He has also blamed Obama for their rise in the United States, but as this BBC story reveals, that is complete bullshit. The gangs first arose in Los Angeles in the 1980’s to protect El Salvadorean immigrants who had fled the long standing civil war in their home country. Like many gangs that start with a ’cause’ like the IRA, they quickly evolved into criminal organizations. The period when the gangs actually thrived the most was during the Bush-Cheney years.

Regardless of who is responsible for the rise of these criminal organizations there are certain undeniable facts. They are among the most brutal people on earth and the most brazen. Members of both gangs adorn themselves with tattoos that leave no doubt about their gang affiliation. They don’t care who knows it.

The rise of the gangs in El Salvador began when members of the L.A. gangs were deported back to to their native country and brought their rivalries with them. In the United States there was at least an organized legal system to keep their violence in check, but not in El Salvador. The violence here exploded and El Salvador became one of the most dangerous countries on earth. Victor tells a story that if it weren’t so cynical at its core, would be amusing. He was in San Salvador during the height of the violence and heard a celebration in the streets break out. When he went outside to see what was going on, it turned out that El Salvador had just officially been declared to have the highest murder rate in the world. Finally this tiny country was #1 at something, even if it was in killing its own citizens.

So who in their right f***ing mind would want to got to El Salvador?

Well first of all the historically high murder rates topped out in 2012 and have declined ever since. With the election of President Nayib Bukele in 2019 the murder rate has declined to its lowest rate in three decades and the gangs apparently have called a truce in the face of the Territorial Control Plan implemented by Bukele. He is a charismatic independent not affiliated with either the traditional left and right wing parties both of whom have produced regimes that collaborate with rather attempt to suppress the gangs. He is a figure of hope in a land that desperately needs one.

Secondly, the gang violence in El Salvador is overwhelmingly directed at each other and the local, mostly rural communities that they terrorize with extortion, rape and kidnapping. While there certainly are not a lot of tourists going to El Salvador, foreign business people making regular visits are relatively safe.

Third, El Salvador marks the southern limit of the Mayan civilization and that is a major reason Alison and I are on this trip, to see Mayan ruins. It is also noted for its many volcanoes and beautiful mountainous terrain. Also, we are slated to visit a working indigo farm, a product that hundreds of years ago was El Salvador’s primary crop, but since has virtually disappeared. So, if not for its bad reputation, there are plenty of reasons to visit.

Fourth, I put my trust in Adventures Abroad and Victor not to take their patrons to any destination that is in fact, inherently dangerous. There is a wide distinction between perceived danger and real danger. We already found that out in Nicaragua, so let’s get going.

In my last post we explored the Nicaraguan city of Leon while staying at the wonderful Hotel El Convento. On the morning we were to leave we boarded our bus and drove back through the capital city of Managua and its international airport on the south side of the city. Usually there is a fairly long entranceway to a county’s largest and busiest airport, but not in Managua. The airport, named after Sandino, is literally not more than 100 yards off the Pan-American Highway and reminded me more of something you’d find in a small city like Sydney, Nova Scotia or Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, although it is quite modern looking.

Our flight to San Salvador was with TACA, a subsidiary of Colombia’s national airline, Avianca which is a member of the Star Alliance group so if you are an Aeroplan member you got points for this flight.

Our Plane to El Salvador

The flight departed on schedule and we got a great view Lake Managua and Momotombo volcano as we headed northwest towards San Salvador.

Momotombo from the Air

As we reached the Pacific Ocean I was surprised to see miles of deserted beaches on what would be the southeast coast of El Salvador. Somehow El Salvador and beaches didn’t seem to go together. This would be the first of many surprises over the next few days.

El Salvador International Airport is the second largest in Central America after only Panama City and according to my research has a safety and security level exceeded in North and Central America only by airports in Canada and United States. That becomes apparent almost from the moment we step off the plane and we have our first inkling of what the Covid-19 virus might mean for travellers. Up to this point Covid-19 had been restricted to China and Trump was calling it another one of the hoaxes he seems to uncover on an almost daily basis. It really didn’t seem a concern, yet every single airport employee was wearing a surgical mask. The lineups were not overly long by international airport standards, but they were moving very slowly. The reason was, as we found out when our turn at customs came, they were checking each passport to see if any had recent stamps from China. Luckily no one in our group had been there within the past six months so it was not a problem. Some were also asked to fill out a form indicating that they did not have the virus which seemed kind of self defeating, but fast forward six weeks and we are using similar forms in Canada.

We were greeted at the exit by our local guide, a young man of about thirty with the unusual, but prepossessing name of Dionysius. Who wouldn’t want to be named after a god? However, he said just to call him Dio, which we did. His English was quite good, but I immediately noticed that when he pronounced the name of his country it didn’t come out as El Salvador. It took me a few days for my ears to pick up that he was saying ‘El Saldor’, eliding the ‘va’ portion of the name as we pronounce it.

After making sure everyone had cleared customs Dio led us out to our bus which was a lot smaller than the one we had in Nicaragua. Over the next two days we would find out there was good reason for a narrower and shorter vehicle. The airport lies 50 kms. (30 miles) south of the city and there is a good four lane highway connecting the two. There was a lot more traffic than in Nicaragua and the cars were generally newer and more high end than Nicaraguan ones. Once again I observed that Latin American drivers are generally less speed crazy than their European counterparts and not in love with the sound of their horns. The one negative I did notice was the amount of trash on the roadsides. It was pretty bad in Nicaragua, but far worse here. For some reason I tend to associate littering with low self esteem, but in reality its a learned behaviour that’s passed from one generation to another until finally the light bulb goes and it stops. El Salvador isn’t remotely there yet.

San Salvador and its suburbs are home to over two million people or about one-third of the country’s population that’s contained in an area only the size of Massachusetts. The temptation would be to think, “Boy, that’s crowded”, but guess what? Massachusetts has half a million more residents than El Salvador and most people don’t consider it over populated. Just as Massachusetts has lots of places to get away from the cities like the Berkshires, so I expect to find in El Salvador.

San Salvador is in a valley surrounded by mountains, many of which are volcanoes and it’s actually quite nice looking from the bus, but one thing above all stands out. Almost every single business has at least one uniformed security guard all toting 12 gauge shotguns with pistol grips. Most seem to be middle aged and Dio explains that after the civil war ended in 1992 there were a lot of ex-fighters on both sides with nothing to do. There was also a lot of crime so most of these guys drifted into security and spend the rest of their working days just standing in front of one building. They are meant to be a type of security blanket and the presence of so many seems to make that work. If you are a criminal looking for a target you are not going to look for a place where you might not get shotgunned in the process of robbing the place. The reality is that the businesses that can afford guards are in the more affluent neighbourhoods which means they are safe and the poor districts are not. End of story.

Barcelo Hotel, San Salvador

The street where our hotel is located is in the older suburb of Colonia San Benito and there are really a shitload of guards around so it must be extra safe. I am surprised by the number of quite large modern buildings including the Hotel Barcelo San Salvador which reminds me of a new version of the Fort Garry Hotel in Winnipeg. It’s a large, modern urban hotel run by the Spanish based Barcelo group and during our two days here I didn’t see a lot of other tourists, but I did see a lot of wedding parties. In fact it seemed to be wedding central El Salvador.

After checking in we had some free time so I went for a stroll which is a euphemism for picking up some wine and beer. San Benito is a very leafy suburb with some impressive buildings like this one almost across the street from the Barcelo.

Modern Building, San Salvador, El Salvador
Modern Building, San Salvador

At first all the armed guards made me a bit tense, but after a few minutes it was like they were a natural part of this environment. They were not unfriendly and mostly just ignored me as I walked the three blocks or so to the nearest Super Selectos which is the largest grocery chain in El Salvador. I don’t know why, but whenever I go into a grocery store in a third world country for the first time I always expect it to be run down with half empty shelves, poorly dressed customers and a bad smell. I’m almost always wrong. This Super Selectos was bright, had a produce section that would be the envy of any in Canada, smartly dressed patrons and a great selection of wine and beer. Since the official El Salvador currency is the US greenback there’s not even the problem of not having a clue at how much anything costs.

Walking back to the hotel I keep a furtive eye out for anyone with gang tattoos, I mean they’re supposed to be running this country according to you know who. I don’t see anyone with a tattoo of any kind, let alone the facial tats that gang bangers favour. I’m slowly starting to realize that once again, my negative expectations about a place I’ve never been, are not going to be met and that I might even like El Salvador.

Any negative thoughts are further put to rest when we meet Victor and the group at the Cadejo Brewing Company which is a craft brewery and restaurant within walking distance of the hotel. The selection of beers is very large for a craft brewery and no matter what your taste in beer you’ll find something to your liking here. Oh, and the food’s great too.

Back at the hotel there is time for a nightcap at Churchill’s whose dark lighting and leather chairs remind me of a London men’s club, not that I’ve ever been allowed in one.

Churchill’s Bar, San Salvador

It’s been an interesting day going from the contrast of colonial Leon to the urbanity of San Salvador. Life is always interesting traveling with Victor. Tomorrow we’ll get out to see some of the countryside and out first Mayan site and then do some tie-dyeing at an indigo farm which I am told is a first for Adventures Abroad. Hope you’ll join us.

Many thanks to Dale of The Maritime Explorer for continuing to entertain us with his wonderful stories from our Central American tour.


Managua And Leon Viejo- Nicaragua Now & Then

How often do you find places more interesting than you expect? This was the case when Dale of the Maritime Explorer travelled with us to Managua in Nicaragua. Read on to the highlights he discovered.



This is my fifth post on Nicaragua from Adventures Abroad’s just completed Central American odyssey designed and led by the company’s veteran tour guide Victor Romagnoli. In this post we’ll make our way from the city of Granada which I was frankly disappointed in, but not the surrounding area, through the capital city of Managua and then to the ruins of Leon Viejo. It promises to be a fascinating day and I hope you’ll come along to enjoy it.

By Central American standards Nicaragua is a fairly large country, just a little larger than the state of New York. However, its principal cities are almost all located along a short stretch of highway just inland from the Pacific Coast starting with Granada then Masaya where we visited the volcano of the same name then a short distance away Managua, and finally Leon. Originally the tour was slated just to drive through Managua as a necessary evil of getting to Leon on the other side, but our local guide Aura Munguia has convinced us that there are a few things worth seeing in the capital city.

Managua – More Interesting than Expected

Managua is a city of just over a million people with another 400,000 or so in the metropolitan area. It was chosen as the capital city in 1852 as a compromise between the much older cities of Granada and Leon that were constantly at each other’s throats. It has a convenient location on Lake Managua almost equidistant between the two rivals, although that also put it smack in the middle of one of the most earthquake prone areas in the Western Hemisphere. Earthquakes, floods and fires have left virtually no traces of much that is older than a few generations with a couple of notable exceptions. After a devastating earthquake in 1931 the city was almost rebuilt from scratch by the Somoza family dictatorship that ruled the country from the 1930’s to the late 1970’s. It actually had a reputation as the leading city in Central America until 1972 when one of the worst earthquakes of the 20th century destroyed almost the entire city and killed nearly 20,000 inhabitants.

Hugo Chavez Monument, Managua
Hugo Chavez Monument

It has never recovered its fleeting moment of international recognition and today is securely in the grip of the Sandanista elites who prefer form over substance as demonstrated by the hundred or so Trees of Life that adorn or blight (depending on your point of view) the main thoroughfares of the city. These were designed by the first lady of Nicaragua Rosario Murillo, a very controversial and divisive figure in the country’s politics. The 2.5 million bulbs needed to light up all the trees cost a fortune  every year in a country where electrical blackouts are common. But hey, everyone needs to be reminded of what a great guy Hugo Chavez was and all he did for his fellow Venezuelans as well as propping up the Sandinistas with cheap oil for decades. During the uprisings of 2018 many of the Trees of Life were toppled by cheering mobs, which may account for the brutal response by Daniel Ortega or as many believe, the power behind the throne, Rosario.

I did not have any real preconceptions about Managua which led me to look at the city with unjaundiced eyes and frankly, despite the ridiculous Trees of Life, it seemed quite liveable compared to negative reputation of Nicaragua in the western press. Probably because it is such a poor country and most people can’t afford cars, the streets were not overcrowded or smoggy. In fact getting into and out of the city was really a breeze. I saw no real barrios lining the hillsides, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t there. In general, the people, while perhaps subdued, were not unfriendly and life seemed to be going on pretty decently in Managua – at least at the superficial level that a passing tourist such as myself would observe. Maybe it was all a facade, I honestly don’t know.

We had two stops in Managua, sort of an after and before in that order. The first was to see the absolutely ghastly Immaculate Conception Cathedral which was built to replace the old cathedral that was permanently closed after the 1972 earthquake.

Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Managua
Immaculate Conception Cathedral

Now don’t get me wrong, I loved this stop because it has such a great story behind it. Somebody forgot to tell the Mexican architect Ricardo Legoretta that he was designing a church and not a mosque. Somebody should also have reminded him that Buitalism as an architectural style has failed, brutally. While many mosques feature a collection of small rounded domes or cupolas I’m not aware of any churches that do – usually one or two cupolas are sufficient, not more than twenty. In this case the addition of the small projections at the top inevitably led the locals to compare them to chichas and thus the nickname for the church La Chichona or to put it somewhat crassly, The Tits. I’m sure that’s not what Tom Monaghan the founder of Domino’s Pizza and the guy who footed the bill for this monstrosity had in mind when he hired Regoretta. Well let’s go inside and see if things get any better.

They do. The sparsity of decoration on the outside continues on the inside, but here it works. There is a sense of awe and reverence created by the huge open space.

Interior of Managua Cathedral
Managua Cathedral Interior

Although I am not a religious scholar, I do fancy that I know a thing or two about the Catholic religion, if only from osmosis in visiting so many of these churches around the world. The one set of items I always look for are the Stations of the Cross which often contain some of the finest and most expressive art work in the church. Traditionally there are fourteen stations ending with the entombment which I always found puzzling because isn’t the real message not the death of Christ, but his resurrection?

So I was pleasantly surprised to actually see a 15th station in this cathedral depicting the Resurrection and learned that this is an increasing trend around the Catholic world. I could make a reference to a certain infamous 20th century cult leader whom this portrait resembles, but I won’t.

Managua Cathedral Station of the Cross
15th Station of the Cross

One final comment on the new cathedral. Less than three months before our visit, seven mothers went on a hunger strike here protesting the imprisonment of their children for political reasons i.e. they dared oppose Daniel Ortega and the Sandanistas. It didn’t last 24 hours as a ‘pro-government’ mob went on a rampage in the church and the mothers, for their own safety and probably more-so of their children, left the building. So much for peaceful protest.

From the new cathedral we made our way to the centre of Managua and a spacious open area where the old cathedral and the Palacio Nacional are both located.

Old Cathedral, Managua
Old Cathedral

Although it could pass for a much older Spanish colonial church the old cathedral or more properly the Catedral de Santiago, is not really that old. It was built by Belgians and only completed in 1938. It was so heavily damaged in the 1972 earthquake that it was condemned, but not demolished and makes for a suitably grand relic. We will be seeing a lot more of these and a lot older ones at that when we get to the Guatemalan city of Antigua.

At right angles to the old cathedral is the Palacio Nacional which is grand neo-classical structure from which the Somoza regime ran its dictatorship until in 1978 when the Sandanistas stormed it and arrested the puppet deputies, putting an end to forty years of oppression or so it was hoped. The Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Márquez dubbed it the ‘banana Parthenon’. He had a way with words.

Palacio Nacional, Managua
The Banana Parthenon

Not wishing to continue the building’s reputation as a seat of the abuse of power, the Sandanistas turned it into the Cultural Palace that every communist government seems to think is de rigeur in legitimizing their iron grip on the people. Despite this obviously tremendous draw there was only one woman pushing a baby carriage in the entire plaza. Three ice cream salesmen were so desperate for business that they kept circling us on their little pedal driven carts with each ringing their bells louder and louder in the apparent belief that if they made enough racket we would buy them off with a purchase. It didn’t work.

We headed back to the bus leaving only the woman and her baby and the ice cream peddlers to bring life to what was otherwise a pretty bereft scene.

Leon Viejo

Next we headed north from Managua along the shores of Lake Managua where another of Nicaragua’s famed volcanoes, Momotombo soon comes into view looming ominously on the north shore of the lake. I say ominously because this is an active volcano and like Vesuvius, has a reputation for burying entire cities under a mountain of ash. In fact, our next stop is at the site of one of its victims, León Viejo, the original location of the city of León, abandoned in 1610 and buried into oblivion by subsequent eruptions, not be be rediscovered for three and a half centuries and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Leon Viejo Mural
Mural at Leon Viejo

One of the highlights of my travels is to visit UNESCO World Heritage Sites as they usually are not only amazing, but greatly informative as well. Go to enough of them and you truly do get a much better world view than you would if you confine your travels to resorts, theme parks and element of self-criticism here, golf courses. Or even if you eat up cultural and historical sites, but ignore natural wonders or vice versa. One of the reasons Alison and I signed up for this trip was that it does visit so many World Heritage Sites and León Viejo is the first for us on this trip. For those who started in Panama they have already visited the two sites in Panama City that have received the UNESCO designation, Panama Viejo and the Historic District which I wrote about in this post from 2018.

After that build up I’m sorry to say that León Viejo will almost certainly be underwhelming for all but the most ardent of archaeological fans. In fact, it’s fair to say that our group spent more time birding on the site than in actually touring the ruins, but in fairness, the birding here is really good. The reason for this is that León Viejo is a truly almost unscratched archaeological wonder that perfectly preserves, without subsequent development, a very early Spanish Colonial city. The burying of the city and its subsequent abandonment have made it unique among New World colonial settlements, only Jamestown in Virginia comes close.

It is the integrity of León Viejo that makes it so remarkable as this quote from the UNESCO website makes clear.


The space on which the Ruins of León Viejo lie contains the main material, architectural and urban elements of the old town of León founded in 1524 and which disappeared in 1610. The main urban roads (Calle Real – the Royal Road – and Plaza Mayor – the Grand-Place), and the most important buildings (religious, civil, and those for housing and military installations), which are fundamental and characteristic elements of the Spanish-American cities founded in the 16th century are clearly defined.

The abandon of the city in 1610 and its gradual burial helped preserve the ruins unaltered for over 350 years, until their discovery in 1967. Since then, excavations, building surveys, scientific studies and conservation works were carried out, which would ensure the preservation of the existing ruins and their exploitation in a sustainable manner with the participation- and for the benefit — of the community.

Anthropogenic risks remain minor, because the ruins are in a sparsely populated area not developed an urban scale. The main threats to the integrity of the site are natural phenomena.

So if I haven’t put too much of a damper on things, let’s explore León Viejo.

Getting here involves turning off the main Managua/León highway and heading to the tiny, dusty village of Puerto Momotombo where despite what happened in 1610 and many times since, people still live under the shadow of an active volcano.

Entrance to Leon Viejo

Despite this somewhat grand entry sign there are no other vehicles in the parking lot and nobody apparently in charge. There is a map of what the place looked like in 1610 with a list of 19 identified sites.

Map of Leon Viejo

There is a very small exhibit centre with not a lot in it other than a model of the old city with the most impressive buildings the cathedral.

Model of the Cathedral

And the Citadel which looks like it might have been made from lego blocks..

Model of the Citadel

The original León was founded in 1524 by Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, the same guy who founded Granada earlier in the same year. As noted in my post on Granada his reward was to be beheaded for treason in 1526, which event occurred right here in León Viejo. In 2000 his remains were discovered on the grounds we are walking today. There was apparently a substantial  existing Indigenous population in the area which the Spaniards viewed as human fodder for slavery and/or extermination. The savagery of the onslaught is memorialized in this statue not far from the entrance which is dedicated to those who died in the insurrection of 1528, by which time the native population knew that the newcomers were only bringing death and destruction to their way of life. Perhaps most galling to them was the idea that this was all being done in the name of some omniscient god who claimed to be merciful and forgiving.

Indigenous Monument

This statue shows an Indigenous cacique being attacked by one of the infamous Spanish war dogs that were trained to kill and spread terror with their ferocity. The Spanish mastiff was far larger than the dog portrayed here and could weigh up to 250 pounds. They would not have bothered with the leg, but gone straight for the throat. Man’s best friend? Not if you were their perceived enemy.

The site was utterly deserted aside from the numerous birds including mot mots and trogons that deflected our attention with their bright colours and loud calls.

The first building you come to is the Governor’s Palace which is anything but palatial looking. It takes a while to realize that we are standing a good six to eight feet above the level of the ground at the tim León Viejo was abandoned. Unlike Pompeii it was not totally covered with volcanic ash in one terrible event, but subject to major earthquakes in 1594 and 1610 which convinced the people to move some twenty miles further away from Momotombo and found the present day city of León. Subsequent eruptions did completely bury the site, proving that it was indeed a wise decision to relocate.

Governor’s Palace

Our group ambled its way along the Calle Real to explore some of the more prominent buildings that have been excavated.

Rambling on the Royal Road

As with all early colonial settlements founded by Catholic nations, whether Spanish, Portuguese or French, religious orders tended to dominate. There were no less than three monasteries and this complex which Aura identified as a convent.

Leon Viejo Convent

The most important building excavated so far is undoubtedly the original Our Lady of Mercy, one of the oldest churches in the New World. It was here that the remains of Cordoba were unearthed.

Our Lady of Mercy

The most interesting building for me was one that has not yet been excavated, but whose existence is easy to identify by the large man made mound at the outer extremity of the site. This was the former Citadel and standing on top of it you get the best view of Momotombo and her supposed son Tombolito who rises directly from the waters of Lake Managua. She’s still smoking and who knows when León Viejo might be buried again?

Momotombo & Tombolito

And with apologies to Malcom Lowry, for sure you are going to want that great picture under the volcano.

Under the Volcano

That concludes this post. Next we’ll visit Nicaragua’s most interesting and dynamic city, León the Younger. Hope you’ll join the Adventures Abroad group.


Ometepe – Lake Nicaragua’s Must Visit Destination

With two volcanoes dominating this island, Ometepe is a feast for the eyes but also features a great insight to Nicaragua’s culture. We follow along with veteran guide Victor as Dale of the Maritime Explorer explains how their group trip to Ometepe went.


This is my fourth post on the country of Nicaragua which Alison and I are visiting as part of Victor Romagnoli’s Central America tour on behalf of Canadian travel company Adventures Abroad. One of the attractions for me in choosing this trip was the opportunity to see volcanoes, lot’s of them and Nicaragua fits that bill perfectly. In my last post we visited the active volcano Masaya and stared into what the Spaniard’s called ‘The Gates of Hell’. Today we are going to take a ferry to Ometepe Island in Lake Nicaragua where we will see two of the country’s most famous volcanoes, Concepción and Maderas as we do a near circumnavigation of the island. It promises to be a great excursion and I invite you to come along.

At Lake Nicaragua

Almost from the moment you cross the border from Costa Rica to Nicaragua the presence of Lake Nicaragua and the two huge volcanoes that seem to sprout right out of its waters are a dominating feature of the landscape. Long before we reached our destination of Granada our bus pulled off the highway near a small lane that led to the lakefront and we got out to survey the amazing scene which simply demands that you stand in between the two volcanoes and take a picture like the one above. Victor promised that in a few days we would get a much closer look as we crossed to Ometepe Island and today’s the day.

As an aside I couldn’t help but notice these little girls having a mud ball fight near the shoreline. Nicaragua might be a police state and a dictatorship, but they don’t know it yet; they are still Babes in Toyland.

Playing in the Lake

Some Facts About Ometepe Island

Map of Ometepe Island
Ometepe Island Map

Ometepe is a Nahuatl word meaning ‘two mountains’ which for once makes plain sense as you can see from the map. For an island in a lake it’s quite large at 267 sq. kms. or 107 sq. miles with a length of 31 kms. (19 miles) and a maximum width of 10 kms. (6.2 miles). Surprisingly, to me at least, there are almost 30,000 people living here, most making a living as agriculturalists, fishermen or in cattle raising although tourism is beginning to be a major employer. People a lot younger than me are drawn here to climb to volcanoes and veg out along the shores of the lake. Victor was once one of them, having climbed Concepción on more than one occasion. Nobody on our group will be doing that today – in fact, just the thought of it makes my knees ache.

Historically, people have inhabited Ometepe for thousands of years and we will be making a stop to look at some of the ancient artifacts that have been found on the island. Not long after the Europeans arrived in the New World Ometepe became the frequent target of pirates who came up the San Juan River from the Caribbean and pillaged and looted the place forcing the inhabitants to flee to higher ground. That lasted well up into the 18th century before a sense of normalcy returned and now the pirates all live in Managua. Given the beauty of the island with its two volcanoes, lush tropical forest and bucolic atmosphere away from the few towns, it’s a natural magnet for people like me who relish nothing more than boarding a ferry to explore a new island destination. I suspect most in our group have the same heightened sense of expectation.

Heading for the Boat

It’s about an hour or so drive south from Granada to the small city of Rivas and the nearby port of San Jorge where the ferries depart for Ometepe. They take mostly passengers, but also a few cars and trucks, one of which was loaded with frozen chickens destined for the island’s markets. The lake is a lot calmer than a few days before when we first sighted it, which is a pleasant surprise. All are required to wear life jackets and most of us head to the top deck for the best view.

On the Ferry to Ometepe
On the Ferry

The trip takes a little over an hour to the small town of Moyogalpa and while I was hoping that the mist that shrouds most of Concepción volcano will lift, it doesn’t. Maybe later.

Coming in to Moyogalpa

There is quite a welcoming crew awaiting us as we approach the landing pier. Well actually they are just passengers waiting to board and head back to the mainland. As you can see they are mostly young and white – the proverbial backpackers from Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia.

Waiting to Board

Our local guide Aura leads us off the boat and up the main street of Moyogalpa which fashions itself a city, but is actually a town of about 1,500.

Welcome to Moyogalpa, Ometepe Island
Welcome to Moyogalpa

At the intersection of the two main arteries a street meat vendor has her works on display. Remind me to go for the chicken at lunch.

Meat for Sale

After the mandatory, but mercifully brief stop at the town’s Catholic church we board two vans and begin our exploration of Ometepe Island.

Not far out of Moyogalpa we turn down a narrow country lane and stop at the end of the road where the only other vehicle is an RV with a French license plate. How it would get to this remote place is beyond me, but sure enough just a ways down the beach we are headed to is a young family speaking French. Looking around I can certainly see the attraction – a beautiful black sand beach that leads out onto a spit of land where our group gathers, taking in the view of Concepción.

End of the Line

This is the view looking back to Concepción. I don’t think the words ‘tropical paradise’ would be out of place here. The water is deliciously warm on my toes and there are a number of interesting shells that Alison and I gather to add to our collection back home.

Concepcion from the Beach

There are a number of palapas back from the beach including one under construction the old fashioned way – using just one tool, a very sharp machete and some swift and accurate blows upon the small trees that have been felled. Somehow the noise of a chainsaw just wouldn’t seem right in this idyllic spot.

Building a Palapa

Walking back to the vans we come across a beautiful shrub with this flower which Aura identified as a tiger claw flower although that name is given to a number of flowers around the world. No matter what you call it, this is a nice plant with an even nicer Latin name, glorioisa superba. Alison is much more diligent than I am a taking pictures of the many varieties of flowers we have seen in Nicaragua. Suffice it to say that the countryside is a riot of bloom and a treat to the eyes.

Tiger Claw Flower

Our next stop is still on this country lane where we come upon a crop that, to my knowledge is no longer grown in Canada, but once was a staple of southwest Ontario and Prince Edward Island. I’m talking about that most evil of plants, tobacco. We are constantly told of how many millions of people from the New World died from diseases, wittingly or unwittingly introduced by the Europeans. However, the New World gave the Old World tobacco and the number of deaths it has caused over the centuries would dwarf those killed by disease from the 15th to the 18th century. So the last laugh goes to the Indigenous chief who first gave Sir Walter Raleigh a smoking plant to inhale and got the world hooked.

I’m being facetious of course. No plant is good or evil, but it is the use we make of it that matters, whether for good or bad purposes. This a field of Nicaraguan tobacco which will become a component in cigars that Aura assures us are now the best in the world, surpassing Cuba’s, despite it’s reputation. A little research confirms indeed that the deep rich black volcanic soils of Nicaragua are the perfect growing medium for high quality tobacco. If you are a gardener you will be familiar with nicotiana or flowering tobacco which is very fragrant and a Canadian garden favourite.

Tobacco Field, Ometepe
Tobacco Field

Moving back onto the main road and deeper into the countryside it quickly becomes apparent that Ometepe Island still relies heavily on domestic animals for transportation like this plantain salesman heading to market.

Plaintain Deliverer

It’s been decades since oxen teams were used to haul logs from the forests of my home province of Nova Scotia, but here I saw many, using the brahman cattle that originated in India, but were actually developed into a source of beef in United States over 140 years ago. They are inured to hot and humid weather and are perfect for a country like Nicaragua.

Oxen Team, Ometepe Island
Oxen Team

After a while we arrived in the town of Altagracia which was bustling with activity. Aura led us to a public area beside the Catholic church where a number of pre-Columbian artifacts are on display. For years these were kept hidden in the basement of the church and considered blasphemous. They were put on display only after there enough of a public outcry about the church trying to bury the Indigenous past of Ometepe which, not surprisingly given the two volcanoes on an island in a lake, was considered a sacred site. Even now the church cannot resist describing the artifacts as ‘idols’, a clear reference to the first commandment forbidding ‘idolatry’.

Ometepe Monuments

In the centre of Altagracia there is a huge model of the island and looking at it you can really visualize just how much of Ometepe is dominated by the two volcanoes. There’s really nothing else like it on earth – Ometepe that is, not the model.

Model of the Volcanoes

Leaving Altagracia we continued along the lakeshore to Villa Paraiso where we stopped for lunch at their restaurant that overlooked a playa on Lake Nicaragua in a another beautiful tropical setting.

 Villa Paraiso, Ometepe Island
Villa Paraiso

Almost immediately upon being seated we were greeted by a flock of bold magpie jays who couldn’t wait for us to get our meals so they could try to steal some. These are very pretty birds with all of the mischievous instincts of both jays and magpies.

Magpie Jay

I remembered my self-admonition to avoid the red meat and ordered the grilled chicken skewers which turned out to be a very wise decision – not because there was anything wrong with the beef, just that this chicken kabob was amazingly tender and flavourful. Easily the best I’ve ever had. Go figure.

Grilled Chicken Skewers

After lunch we headed back to Moyogalpa, but made a quite stop at the airport along the way. Say what?

They’ve built a new landing strip on Ometepe that crosses the main highway just outside of Moyogalpa and of course closes it when the once weekly flight comes in, similar to what happens in Gibraltar. The upside is that the runway is perfectly positioned to provide great views of Concepción. By now most of the cloud that was hiding it earlier in the day had dissipated and the volcano was at its finest as demonstrated by this photo I took of Alison.

Alison & Concepcion

Arriving back at the ferry terminal just in time for the next ferry to dock I couldn’t help but compare it to those boatloads of migrants that try to make the crossing of the Mediterranean in overcrowded boats. It seemed that for every person leaving Ometepe another dozen were arriving.

The Arriving Boat

Our trip back to the mainland was an uneventful three Toña crossing and by nightfall we were back at the hotel in Granada with the trip to Ometepe now a memory and not an anticipation, but once again on this tour a memory that will last a lifetime.

Next we are off to the other old colonial city of Nicaragua, Leon. See you there.

Many thanks again to Dale for his wonderful insights and allowing us to share his words and photos with you.